HISTORY OF SOME TRIBES IN TANZANIA

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ANSWER OUTLINE:-
THE  MERU:-
I.                   INTRODUCTION:-
A.    The  origin  of  Meru 

II.                ECONOMIC  FACTORS.
a)      One  of  the  factors  was  fertile  land  to  facilitate  agriculture  activity.
b)      Also  they  needs  area  for  animals  kept 

III.              SOCIAL  FACTORS  WHICH  MOVE .
a)      There  were  increase  of  population  which  led  Meru  people  to  move  mount  Kenya  to  Tanzania. 

IV.             POLITICAL  FACTORS  OF  MOVE. 
a)      This  coalition  called  Kikuyu  Embu  Meru  Association.  This  cause  movement  because  some  Meru  become  leader

V.                THE  NEIGHBOURING  OF  MERU  PEOPLE. 
a)      There  is  society  are  neighbor  of meru  society  in  Kenya  are  kikuyu,  Akamba,  Embu  and  Swahili and  in  Tanzania  the  neighbouring  society  is  Wambulu  and  wachaga   and  Maasai
VI.             HEALING  PROCESS  OF MERU  PEOPLE.
a)      Society  member  of  Meru  people  use  different  local  medicine  for  treat  disease  like  Malaria,  ascer  and  typhod  and  earthworm. 

VII.          WIDENING  PROCESS  OF  MERU  SOCIETY. 
The  weeding  process  of  meru  people  are  follow  different  steps. 

VIII.       THE  MAJOR  FOOD  OF  THE  MERU  PEOPLE. 
a)      The  major  food  of  the Meru  people  or  society  is called  Loshoro  which  made  with  Maize,  Banan  and  Milk.


IX.             THE  MAJOR  CLOTHES  OF  THE  MERU  PEOPLE. 
a)      The  major  clothes  of  that  trible  is  skin  of  cow.

X.                THE  FAMOUS  PEOPLE  OF  THAT  TRIBE  IN  TANZANIA. 
a)      The  Joseph  Kilelu  was  the  first  person  to  United  to  struggle  the  right  and  freedom  of  the  Meru  people  or  societies.


XI.             ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES  OF  THE  SOCIETY. 
a)      The  Meru  people  engaged  themselves  in  agriculture  activity 
b)      Also  meru  kept  animals  like  cows,  goats

XII.          SOCIAL  ACTIVITIES  OF  A  SOCIETY  MEMBERS. 
a)      Also  some  of  them  practice  African  traditional  religion.

XIII.       POLITICAL  ACTIVITIES  OF THE  SOCIETY MEMBER.
a)      introducing  multparties  in  the  General election  in  2002  that  saw  a  number  of  Meru  leader  in  the  Government.

XIV.       CULTURAL  ACTIVITIES  OF  A  SOCIETY  MEMBER.
a)      Meru  had  cultural  practices  in  their  society  like  language,  the  bantu  Meru  understandable  to  one  another  within  the  society. 

b)      In  traditional  rural  areas  the  Meru  have  strict  Circumcision  that  affect  all  of  life. 
XV.          CONCLUSION:-
             A Summary of an Essay
XVI.       BIBLIOGRAPHY:-
HAYA KINGDOM
I.                   INTRODUCTION:-
A.    Original of Haya Kingdom
B.     Location of Haya kingdom

II.                ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM:-
a)      The Haya involves in agriculture activities and animal keeping. cattle goats.
b)      Trade also was involved the people grew and traded coffee long before the arrival of the European and today have established tea and coffee processing plants
c)      The Haya people of Tanzania have been linked to one of the greatest scientific breaking through of all time , the advent of steel

III.             SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM:-.
a)      The predominant religious are Catholic traditional region Muslim.
b)      The Wazee act as spirit  mediums.
c)      The house is surrounded by a banana plantation an area in front of the house used for relaxation and food drying is kept free of debris by daily sweeping.
d)     The Haya don’t drink the beverage westerns call coffee; instead they cook and chew the beans and use them for family exchanges ritual offering and snacks.

IV.             POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM:-
a)      The Wazee act as a political leader who control the society.

V.                CONCLUSION:-
             A Summary of an Essay
VI.             BIBLIOGRAPHY:-
 KILWA  EMPIRE:-
I.                   INTRODUCTION:-
A.    Meaning of Kilwa empire
B.     Location of kilwa empire
II.                HISTORY  OF  KILWA:-

III.             THE  SOCIETY  OF  KILWA  AND  ITS  ECONOMY:-
a)      Despite  its  origin  as  a  Persian  colony  extensive  intermarriage  and  conversion  of  local   Bantu 
b)      The  mixture  of  Perso-Arab  and  Bantu  cultural 
c)      The  Kilwa  Sultanate  was  almost  wholly  depended  on  external  commerce. 
d)     There  were  then  swapped  in  the  highland  market  towns  for  Bantu  produced  agricultural  commodities 

IV.             THE  CONDITION  OF  KILWA  WHEN  PORTUGUESE  ARRIVE  1489-  1490’S:-
a)      The  condition  of  kilwa  empire  when  Portuguese  arrived  was  Portuguese   Scout  Pero  Da  Covilha,  disguised  as  an  Arabs  merchants,
b)     The  first  Portuguese  ships  under  Vasco  Da  Gama
c)      So  these  led  Emir  Ibrahim  to  got  away  an  agreement  from  Sultanate  Emir  Ibrahim  due  to  strong  Sultanate  of  Kilwa  empire.

V.                CONCLUSION:-
             A  Summary of an Essay
VI.             BIBLIOGRAPHY:-

 SWAHILI COAST CITY-STATES.
I.                   INTRODUCTION:-
a)      Background of Swahili coast city-state
b)      location

II.                ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES :-
a)      They manufactured cotton cloth, glass and shells beads for trade with the East Arican interir.
b)      Also Swahili are rural farmers and Fisherman.
c)      The Swahili and the dhow for ocean going trade in distant lands.


III.             CULTURE
a)      Most were Muslims and language they used is Swahili.

THE  EMPIRE OF KITARA:-
I.                   INTRODUCTION:-
A.    Background of empire of kitar
B.     Original of empire of Kitara

II.                ECONOMICALLY  ACTIVITIES:-
a)      Some community were hunters using nets,
b)      The kitara empire produced a number of wooden item
c)      The kingdom of kitara was the supplier of food stuffs to other neighbouring kingdom.

III.             SOCIALLY ACTIVITIES:-
a)      People were organized in strong Clines with the royal clan of the King, princes and princesses the King hold executive, judicially and legislative power.

IV.             POLITICALLY ACTIVITIES:-
a)      The king absolute authority over his subject.

 V.                REASON FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE EMPIRE:-
a)      The poverty situation  of the Kitara empire.
b)      The impose of colonial rule.
c)      Illiteracy of the majority.

 VI.             CONCLUSION:-
             A Summary of an Essay
VII.          BIBLIOGRAPHY:-

 ZANZIBAR EMPIRE:-
I.               INTRODUCTION:-
A.    Background of Zanzibar empire.
B.     Location

II.            SOCIAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE:-
a)      Use of Arabic culture and civilization
b)      Religion.
c)      Unity.

III.         POLITICAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE:-
a)      Good security system.
b)      Existence of Sultanate rule.
c)      Good leadership.

IV.         ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR THE RISE:-
a)      Good geographical location.
b)      Taxation.
c)      Agriculture.
d)     Trade.


V.            FACTORS WHICH LED TO THE COLLAPSE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE-
a)      Abolition of slave trade.
b)      Establishment of colonialism.

VI.             CONCLUSION:-

VII.          BIBLIOGRAPHY

 THE  MERU:-
The  meaning  of  Meru  people  or  Ameru  are  Bantu  ethnic  group  who  mainly  inhabit  the  Meru  region  of  Kenya.  They  speak  Kimiru  language  among  the  Bantu  languages.  The  Meru  people  living  North  of  Tanzania  especially  Arusha  and  Arumeru.  The  nane  Meru  refers  to  both  the  people  and  the  location.

The  origin  of  Meru  people  living  in  Tanzania  is  North-east  of  Mount  Kenya.  The  Meru  are  a  community   living  on  the  fertily  agricultural  north  and  eastern  of  Mount  Kenya  in  the  former  Eastern  province  of  Kenya.  The  Meru  settled  in  forest  on  the  south  eastern  slopes  of  mount  meru.

Economic  factors.  There  were  economic   factors  which  led  them  to  move  up  Tanzania  in  order    to control  their  lifes.  One  of  the  factors  was  fertile  land  to  facilitate  agriculture  activity.
Also  they  needs  area  for  animals  kept  some  area in  mount  Kenya  were  desert  this  made  people  to  move  from  mount  Kenya  and  establish  new  settlement  in  mount  Meru  Northern  of  Tanzania.
 Social  factors  which  move .There  were  increase  of  population  which  led  Meru  people  to  move  mount  Kenya  to  Tanzania.  In  1992  Meru  was  divided  into  three  at  the  same  area  were  Meru,  Myambene  and  Tharaka.  The  Meru  region  consist  of  approximately  13000  km3.  This  led  to  the  movement  of  Meru  to  Tanzania.
 Political  factors  of  move.  In  the  past the  Meru  were  in  coalition  with  Kikuyu  and  Embu  which  yielded  some  political  power.  This  coalition  called  Kikuyu  Embu  Meru  Association.  This  cause  movement  because  some  Meru  become  leader

The  neighbouring  of  Meru  people.  There  is  society  are  neighbor  of meru  society  in  Kenya  are  kikuyu,  Akamba,  Embu  and  Swahili and  in  Tanzania  the  neighbouring  society  is  Wambulu  and  wachaga   and  Maasai
 Healing  process  of Meru  people.  Society  member  of  Meru  people  use  different  local  medicine  for  treat  disease  like  Malaria,  ascer  and  typhod  and  earthworm.  The  medicine  which  are  uses  to  treat  disease  are  Olopiyap  use  to  treat  or  oremit  uses  to  treat  Malaria,  Olmukutan  uses  to  treat  earthworm  and  other  medicine  like  Osewetoy  and  Olmapinu.

Widening  process  of  Meru  society.  The  weeding  process  of  meru  people  are  follow  different  steps.  When  a  young  wants  to  maryy  a  girl,  mother  of  the  young  boy  take  a  milk  and  honey  to  the  house  of  girl  and  father  take  alcohol  called  Mbege  in  a  special  pot  to  the  house  of  a  girl  and  parents  of  girl  know  that  their  girls  wants   to  marry  by  someone.
“Like the real names of the women, which are kept secret, the traditions of Meru culture may remain hidden from outsides, beyod the reach of German and the English colonizers, beyond  missionaries of the evangelical Lutheran Church and beyond modern government administrator. The women cheer finally welcome visitors to their home nevertheless, to appreciate their way of life and call them by their nicknames”[1]After  that  another  process  of  weeding  follow  and  the  day  of  marriage  arranging  and  hence  wedding  take  part.
The  major  food  of  the  Meru  people.  The  major  food  of  the Meru  people  or  society  is called  Loshoro  which  made  with  Maize,  Banan  and  Milk.  Also  meat  is  food  that  tribe  which  help  member  to  survive.

The  major  clothes  of  the  Meru  people.  The  major  clothes  of  that  trible  is  skin  of  cow.  This  is  traditional  clothes  of  Meru  society  which  dress  cover  the  body  of  the  people  and  help  them  from  cold  and  other  dangerous  things

The  famous  people  of  that  tribe  in  Tanzania.  The  famous  people  of  Meru  tribe  in  Tanzania  are  Joshua  Nassary  a  member  of  parliament  he  represent  Meru  constituence  in  the  parliament  and  Elishila  Kaaya  director  of  AICC.  Not  only  also  Joseph  Kilelu  was  the  first  person  to  Unitd  to  struggle  the  right  and  freedom  of  the  Meru  people  or  societies.
 Economic activities  of  the  society.  The  Meru  people  engaged  themselves  in  agriculture  activity  and  some  groups  are  grown  like  coffee,  cotton  maize (corn)  beans  are  cash  crops  and  potatoes,  maize beans  sorghum  and  millet  are  staple  food  crops,Also  meru  kept  animals  like  cows,  goats
 Social  activities  of  a  society  members.  Meru  people  a  had  educational  foundation  provided  by  Christianity  mission  and  among  the  most  influential  ethnics  group.  The  main  institution  were  started  or  sponser  by  churches  notably  catholic,  Methodist  (the  dominant  church  in  the  region)  Presbyterian.Also  some  of  them  practice  African  traditional  religion.
 Political  activities  of the  society member.Meru  also  practice  political  activities  and  some  parts  are  made  within  the  society.  In  Kenya  after  introducing  multparties  in  the  General election  in  2002  that  saw  a  number  of  Meru  leader  in  the  Government.
 Cultural  activities  of  a  society  member.  Meru  had  cultural  practices  in  their  society  like  language,  the  bantu  Meru  understandable  to  one  another  within  the  society.  The  Meru  speak  at  least  seven  dialect  with  the  southern  dialect  being  very  close  to  kikuyu  and  the  northern  dialects  showing  same  Cushitic  tenderagies  but  the  Bible  translation  being  used  in  the  iment  dialect.

In  traditional  rural  areas  the  Meru  have  strict  Circumcision  that  affect  all  of  life.  From  the  time  of  circumscision  boys  no  longer  have  contact  with  their  mother.  A  separate  house  is  built  for  the  sons.  Also  girls  undergo  circumcision  but  practice  has  been  abandoned.
HAYA KINGDOM
The Haya Kingdom are said to have settled in the Kagera region of North western of Tanzania dividing the time of the Bantu expansion. They believed to be some of the earliest inhabitant in the area to practices metal work which allowed them to create various new form of pottery.

With the arrival of the Europeans and Christianity the region became famous for yielding the first African Roman Catholic Cardinal the late Cardinal Laurian Rugambwa also they valued formal education early compared to other tribe.

In 1987, the Haya region was attempted annexation by former Uganda president Idi Amini Dada whose invasion of the Kagera region eventually lead to the toppling of his government by the Army of Tanzania.
 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM
The Haya involves in agriculture activities and animal keeping. They lived in densely populated villages and are cultivators of plantain coffee beans, maize, mines , tin wolfram. Also animal husbandry cattle goats.
Trade also was involved the people grew and traded coffee long before the arrival of the European and today have established tea and coffee processing plants

The Haya people of Tanzania have been linked to one of the greatest scientific breaking through of all time , the advent of steel

“Anthropologist discovered through the communication of oral tradition that the Haya have been forging steel for nearly 2000 years”[2]
 This discoevered by Peter Schmjolt was learning about the history of the Haya via oral tradition.

SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM.
The predominant religious are Catholic traditional region Muslim. Some Haya the  Omufumu (in the Kihaya language) uses herbs and spiritual act as spirit power to diagnose and illnesses.
The Wazee act as spirit  mediums. The wazee have the ability to travel great distance and bring about therapestic cure such as the recovery of stolen objects or even in soccer matches.
The house is surrounded by a banana plantation an area in front of the house used for relaxation and food drying is kept free of debris by daily sweeping. The interior of the houses is divided into separate use areas some reserved for men some some for women children and cooking some for animals and one for honoring ancestors.
 The Haya don’t drink the beverage westerns call coffee; instead they cook and chew the beans and use them for family exchanges ritual offering and snacks. They dried something called Mbandule which is an alcoholic beverage made from banana.

POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF HAYA KINGDOM
The Wazee act as a political leader who control the society. Wazee is ancestors or Old one in Swahili. Act as leader and divided the work within the society and talk to the young and to advice different thing rise within the society.

KILWA  EMPIRE:-
The  Kilwa  empire  Sultanate  was  a  medieval  Sultanate  centered  at  Kilwa  (in modern  day  Tanzania)  whose  authority  at  its  height  stretched  over  the  entire  length  of  the  Swahili  coast.  It  was  founded  in   the  10thc  by  Ali  Ibn  Al-Hassan  Shiraz   a  Persian  prince  of  Shirazi.  His  family  ruled  the  Sulatanate  until.  The  year  1277.  It  was  replaced  by  the  Arab  family  of  Abu  Moaheb  until  1505  when  it  was  over  through  by  a  Portuguese  invasion.
 HISTORY  OF  KILWA:-
The  history  of  Kilwa  begins around  960-1000AD  Ali  Ibn  AL-Hassan  Shirazi  was  one  of  Seven  sons  of  a  rulers  Shirazi  Persia  and  his  mother  was  an  Abyssiian slave  up  on  his  father’s  death.  Ali  was  driven  out  of  his  inheritance  by  his  brothers.  Kilwa  was  originally  owned  by  a  mainland  Bantu  king  “Almuli”  and  connected  by  a  small  land  bridge  to  the  mainland  that  appeared  in  low  tide 
 The  king  agree  to  sell  it  to  Ali  Ibn  Al0Hassan  Shirazi  for  as  much  coloured  cloth  as  could  cover  the  circumference  of  the  Island.  But  later the  king  changed  his  mind,  and  tried  to  take  it  back  the  Persian  had  dug  up the  land  bridge  and  Kilwa  was  now  an  Island.
THE  SOCIETY  OF  KILWA  AND  ITS  ECONOMY:-
Despite  its  origin  as  a  Persian  colony  extensive  intermarriage  and  conversion  of  local   Bantu  Inhabitants  and  later  Arab  Immigration  turned  Kilwa  Sultanate  into  a  veritable  melting  pot.
 The  mixture  of  Perso-Arab  and  Bantu  cultural  is  credited   for  creating  a  distinctive  East  African  culture  and  language  known  today  as  Swahili.
 The  Kilwa  Sultanate  was  almost  wholly  depended  on  external  commerce.  Effectively  it  was  confederation  of  Urban   settlements,  there  was  little  or  no  agriculture  carried  on  in  within  the  bounderies  of  Sultanate.  Grains  (principle  millet  and  rice)  meats  (cattle  poultry)  and  other  necessary   supplies  to  fed  the  large  city  population  had  to  be  purchased  from  the  Bantu  peoples  of  the  Interior.

The kilwa  mode  of  living  was  a  middlemen  traders,  importing  manufactured  goods  from  Arabia  and  India”[3]

There  were  then  swapped  in  the  highland  market  towns  for  Bantu  produced  agricultural  commodities  like  grain,  meats  for  their  own  subsistence  and  precious  raw  materials  like  gold,  ivory   etc.  Which  they  export  back  to  Asia  people.  These  led  Kilwa  empire  to  Become  most  in  trade  with  Arabs  and  Asian.

THE  CONDITION  OF  KILWA  WHEN  PORTUGUESE  ARRIVE  1489-  1490’S:-
The  condition  of  kilwa  empire  when  Portuguese  arrived  was  Portuguese   Scout  Pero  Da  Covilha,  disguised  as  an  Arabs  merchants,  had  traveled  the  length  of  the  Kilwa  Sultanate  in  1489-1490  and  visiled  the  ports  of  Malindi,  Kilwa  and  Sofala  and  delivered  his  Scouting  report  back  to  Lisbon,  describing  the  condition  of  the   Kilwa  Sultanate  in  quite  some  detail.
 The  first  Portuguese  ships  under  Vasco  Da  Gama  on  the  way  to  India  reached  the  Sultanate  in  1497  Vasco  Da  Gama  made  contact  with  the  Kilwa  Vassals  of  Mozambique  Mombasa  and  Malindi.  Seeking  to  secure  their  cooperation  as  standing  posts for  the  Portuguese  India  armadas.

 “In  1500,  the  2nd  Portuguese  India  Armada  under  Pedro  Alvares  Cabral,  Visited  Kilwa  itself  and  attempted  to  negotiate  a  commercial  and  alliance  treaty  with  Emir  Ibrahim,  but  Emir  Ibrahim  prevaricated  and  no  agreement  was  reached”[4]
So  these  led  Emir  Ibrahim  to  got  away  an  agreement  from  Sultanate  Emir  Ibrahim  due  to  strong  Sultanate  of  Kilwa  empire.  It  was  1505  that  fransico  de  Almeida  brought  his  fleet  into  the  harbor  of  Kilwa  and  landed  some  500  Portuguese   soldiers  to  drive  Emir  Ibrahim  out  of  the  city  in  Kilwa  empire.  Then  led  Portuguese  to  import  fortress of  (FORT  SANTIAGO)  IN  Kilwa.

 SWAHILI COAST CITY-STATES.
The earliest Swahil culture developmed in the Tana Valley and the Lamu Islands, from indigeneous Bantu speaking population around the sixth century. By the 10th century Islam was begginibbg to take root as it was reported that Kambalu was run by Muslim. The trading opportunities saw the arrival of Arabs Persian and Indian Merchants. In “916 Al-Muhidin visited the Swahili coast or land of the Zanji”

Between 1050-1200, a wave of immigration from Persian seems to have occurred, caused a southern migration from shungwaya and Lamu to Zanzibar, Pemba Mafia and Kilwa.

Faty Swahili towns existed between Mogadishu, Pate, Mombasa, Malindi, Zanzibar and Kilwa. Each town had a mosque, very few stone structure existed. The population consisted of muslim and slaves. The well to do and old families lived in the northern part of Town while migrants and the less well to do lived in the Southern part. Some towns were non by royalty other were by an oligarch called “Waungwana”
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (TRADE)
The Swahili and the dhow for ocean going trade in distant lands. The Swahili provided the Wsia and Mediterranean world gold, ivory furs, slaves, tortoise, shells, and rhino ceras horns for Persian rugs, chinek, percelin and other luxurious items. The Swahili had an extensive trade network this included the Ped sea to Egypt, Oman of the Arabian Peninsula, Shiraz in Persia, Gao and Cambay in India and China.

They manufactured cotton cloth, glass and shells beads for trade with the East Arican interir. Also Swahili are rural farmers and Fisherman.

CULTURE
Most were Muslims and language they used is Awahili.
“Swahili are an African people who an moving to the coast engaging in Maritime trade became a distinctive, urbanized, Muslim society”[5]
HOUSING
One of the earliest examples of menumental Swahili Architrcture is the trade emporium of Husuni Kubwa, Lying west of Kilwa built about 1245. As with many other early Swahili buildings, coral was the main constructed material and the roof was constructed by attaching coral to timbers. It contained fluted conical vaults and domes, one hundred rooms with courtyards, terraces and a sunken swimming pool. The palace at Kilwa was a two story tower, in a walled enclosure. Other notable structure includes the Pillars Tombs at Malindi and Mnarani in Kenya. Originally build from coral but later from stone. Examples sindude Zanzibars stone towns with its famous carved doors, and the Great Mosque of Kilwa carved doors were a unique element in Swahili town houses, found in Zanzibar and other homes along the East African coast.

KITARA
Kitara was the empire which was know as Bachwezi, Bacwezi or Chwezi empire is a strong part of Oral traditional in the area of Great lake of Africa. Including the modern countries of Uganda, northern Tanzania, eastern Democratic republic of the Congo Rwanda and Burundi. In the Oral tradition Kitara was a kingdom which at the height of its power in the fourteenth and fifteenth century included much of Uganda, northern Tanzania and eastern Congo (DRC) ruled by dynast known as the Bachwezi (or Chwezi) who were the successor of the Batembuzi dynasty. According to the storythe Kitara empire lasted until the 16th century when it was invaded by Luo people who came from the present day south-Sudan and established the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. However they hypothesis has been questioned by the scholars on wheter the invasion realy took place. There is no historical record that confirm this theory and to be sure there is no linguistic connection of the modern day Bunyoro, Buganda (Banyankole) ad Batutsi with any of the life Luo dialect but relies of the Chwezi empire exist in Parts of Central Uganda would have not been conducive to their life style also part of the reason why they may have left so soon of other areas in the south of the lift valley
 The empire of Kitara was founded by the Batembuzi dynasty who were succeeded by Bachwezi dynast when they established Kitara. Much of what is Known is based on my theology and oral tradition. A number of current Great lakes Kingdom claim inheritance of from the ancient Kitara empire, ruled by a dynasty known as Bachwezi. The region of bachwezi is shrouded in mystery and legend, so much so that many traditional goods in Toro, Bunyoro and Buganda have associated with  the Bachwezi kings.

POPULATION:-
The total population of kitara kingdom is between 800,000 and 1,400,000 living in 250,000 to 350,000 houses holds. 96% percent of the population living in the rutal area and only 1% of population was electricity for lighting and cooking more than 92% of the population are poor and has earning more than half of the Ugandan national average and about 54% of the population is illiterate.

ECONOMICALLY
The kingdom of kitara was the supplier of food stuffs to other neighbouring kingdom. The fertile soil of the empire enable people to grow plenty of food for home, consumption and the suplus was sold to the neighbouring communities. Peoples economy thus was greatlyon agriculture carried on using traditionally made hoes Barter trade was also common in the empire. The people along the lake Mwitazinga were fishermen.
 Some communitywere hunters using nets, Knives and spear. They were using local tools for killing small animals which the big ones were killed using well dug deep pit (obuhya), people they exchange fish and meat. The coming of Bachwezi introduced the culture of keeping cattle in larger scale with their long-horned cattle which yield more milk.

Salt processing in kiboro. The empire were processed the salt made an exchange with fish.

The kitara empire produced a number of wooden item, hides and skin items, palm and sisal items, iron and stone items, pottery and mud items and other on economic basis.

SOCIALLY
People were organized in strong Clines with the royal clan of the King, princes and princesses the King hold executive, judicially and legislative power. His word were highly respected and almost equated the word from God. The king subjects ensured that their king lack nothing economically. Clans would bring food staffs (ebihotole) in turn and each clans had a specific duty to perform for the King.

POLITICALLY
The king absolute authority over his subject. He appointed the country chiefs (Aba masaga) to administer each country below them there subcountry chiefs (Abangomborozi) who were sub country administer. This received reports from parish chiefs (Abemiruka) and sub parish chiefs (Abatongole) at the very Grass root were the Village chiefs (Bakuru) B’emigongo) with the hierarchical arrangement the King’s message used to reach at the grass root very fast. Later on the office of the prime minister (Omuhikirwa) katikiro was established to head the civil service of the entire empire. All country chiefs reports to him he in turn reports to king

REASON FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE EMPIRE:-
The poverty situation  of the Kitara empire. Majority of the kitara empire had lived in below standard of life because of the burst of poverty of the empire, that led the failure of running various sectors of the empire. Example agriculture, trade fishing and others.

The impose of colonial rule. The colonialist invaded the potential areas which belonged to kitara empire that led the denigration of the empire since some of the leaders were persecuted by the colonialist. They capture the coastal areas for the benefit of white settlers example white persecuted Omukama who was a leader of Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom.

Illiteracy of the majority. The people belonged to kitara empire almost were illiterate that led the misorganization of the empire since they did not aware on the strategies for running the empire for escaping from disintegration, illiterate rate contributed the failure of leaders to organize the society to unite so as to defeat the white colonialism.

ZANZIBAR EMPIRE:-
In 1698 Zanzibar become part of the overseas holdings of Oman, falling under the control or Sultan of Oman. The Arabs established garrisons at Zanziabr, Pemba and Kilwa. The height of Arabs rule came during the reign of Seyyid said (More fully sayyid said sultan al-busaid) who in 1840 moved his capital from Muscat in Oman to stone town.
The word Zanzibar came from Persian and Arabic origin, the Persian derived the name from Zhang Bar which means the Negro coast. And Arabs deduce the name from Arabic Zayn Z’al Barr  which mans fair is the land. In 1499 Vasco Da Gama’s visit Zanzibar and make the beginning of European influence and Portuguese stablished control over the land.
 People of Zanzibar are of diversy ethinic origin the first permanent resisdent of Zanzibar seems to have been the ancestors of the Hadimu, Timbatu and Pemba who began arriving from the East Africa mainland around 1000 AD
 “Most populated people in Zanzibar are Swahili and the minority were Asians whose origin were from Indian and Arabs country. People of Zanzibar speak Kiswahili language”[6]
 SOCIAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE-
Religion. The Yemenis built the earliest Mosque in the Southern Hemisphere in Kizimkazi, the southern most village in Unguja. Existence of Arabs who were Moslems converted people of Zanzibar to become Moslems which led to the rise of the empire
 Unity. People of Zanzibar were highly united due to the use of the same language and due to the existence of one religion belief which they depend on it. People of Zanziba are of diverse ethnic origins. The first permanent residents of Zanzibar seems to have been the ancestors of the Hadimu, Tumbatu and Pemba who began arriving from the East Africa mainland around 1000AD. But all ancestors united together and become one.
 Use of Arabic culture and civilization, the people of Zanzibar exchanging materials goods culture and language with the people of Asia. This led to them to change their culture and civilization which led to the growth of Zanzibar empires.

“The ancestors of Zanzibar empire (Hadimu, Tumbatu and Pemba) intermarriage with Arabian people and this caused blood relation and brotherhood which led to the unity are solidarity among the people of Zanzibar empire”[7]
 POLITICAL FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE
Good leadership. Hereditary rule known as the Mwinyi mkuu or Jumbe emerged among the Hadimu and similar ruler called Shehe  who set up among the Tumbatu. They had not much power, but they helped to solidality the ethnic identity of their respective people.

Good security syatem. Zanzibar empire has a good security system which help there to defend with the outside enemies. This also avoid Zanzibar to be attack with people from outside.

Existence of Sultanate rule. Zanzibar empire were controlled by Sultanate from Oman since the decline of Portugal rule in Zanzibar. Sultan use good administrative role which enable Zanzibar to be raised

“The people of Zanzibar exchanging materials goods culture and language with the people of Asia. This led to them to change their culture and start to follow Arabian culture and civilization which led to the growth of Zanzibar empire”[8]

ECONOMIC FACTORS FOR THE RISE-
Agriculture. It activities is one of the factors which lead to the rise of Zanzibar empire due to the growth of cloves and coconuts plantation in Zanzibar this contributed to the rise of Zanzibar empire.

Trade. This is another factors which led to the rise of Zanzibar empires, trades from Arabs mostly Yemen, Persian Gulf, Shiraz and west Indian visited  Zanzibar in 1st  century AD by using monsoon wind to sail across Indian ocean. This traders engaged with slaves and Ivory trade.

Good geographical location. Zanzibar empire has good geographical location which attract many people from overside to visit into this island. The visitors paids tax which contribute to the rise of the empire.
Taxation. Taxation also contribute d to the growth of this empire and this is because traders from different countries who came to trade with Zanzibar were imposed tax with the ruling power example (Sultan)
 “Zanzibar empire has good geographical location which attract many people from outsides to visit into this island. The visitors paid tax which contribute to the rise of this empire”[9]
 FACTORS WHICH LED TO THE COLLAPSE OF ZANZIBAR EMPIRE-
Abolition of slave trade. Slave trade was the backbone of Zanzibar economy therefore abolitions of this trade led to the decline of this empire
 Establishment of colonialism. After scramble and partition Zanzibar become under British control, British introduce their rule in Zanzibar this led for decline of Zanzibar empire

 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bethwell  A  Ogot,  (2000)  ; AFRICA  FROM  16THC  TO  18THC  (UNESCO  PUBLISHING)
Freeman  grenville,  G.S.P  (1962)  THE  MEDIEVAL  HISTORY  OF THE COAST  OF TANGANYIKA  WITH  SPECIAL  REFERENCE  TO  RECENT;  Archeological discoveries,  London.
Illife,  John  (2007)  AFRICAN  THE  HISTORY  OF  A  CONTINENTS,  Cambridge  University  press  ISBN  O-521-68297-5
Igham  ,K.  (1963)  A  HISTORY  OF  EAST  AFRICA,  Longman
Kyazze,  Jones  Yosia,  THE UGANDA  CLAN  SYSTEM
Strong,  S Author  (1895)  THE  HISTORY  OF KILWA,  Edited  from  an  Arabic  Ms  Journal  of    the  royal  Asiatic  society,  January  (No  Volume  Number) 
http://www.africankingdoms.com,  Africa  kingdom
http://wikipedia.org/wik/wikipedia.kilwaempireSultanate


[1] Igham  ,K.  (1963)  A  HISTORY  OF  EAST  AFRICA,  Longman

[2] Illife,  John  (2007)  AFRICAN  THE  HISTORY  OF  A  CONTINENTS,  Cambridge  University  press  ISBN  O-521-68297-5

[3] KILWA  SULTANATE-  Wikipedia-  encyclopedia,  Kilwa  empire.
[4] Strong,  S Author  (1895)  THE  HISTORY  OF KILWA,  Edited  from  an  Arabic  Ms  Journal  of    the  royal  Asiatic  society,  January  (No  Volume  Number) 

[5] Shillington K (2005)  HISTORY OF AFRICA; Revised 2nd Edition New York.
[6] Kimambo, I, N and Temu J A; (1969) A HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi page 231
[7] Kimambo, I, N and Temu J A; (1969) A HISTORY OF TANZANIA; EAPH, Nairobi page 230
[8] Sulton, J, E, E (1968) THE EAST AFRICAN COAST; EAPH Nairobi page 221
[9] Gray, R and Birmingham; (1970)  PRE-COLONIAL AFRICAN TRADERS; Oxford University Press, London page 154