Posted by Emmanuel Mgina on 02:48 with 1 comment
The pare pronounced Pahray people are member of ethnic group indegenous to the pare mountain of Northern Tanzania, part of the Kilimanjaro region. Pare land is also Known as Vuasa (Asu the root word and CHasu or Athu the language) . the location lies on one of the northern routes for Historic East African long distance trade Indian ocean. The residents of northern Pare recignise two sub- areas based on ethnolinguistic differences kingweno speaking Ugweno to the North and Chabu speaking Usangi to the South.
The origin of Pare tribe:-
Their ethno- linguistic group is most commonly said to have its origins in western Cameroon, although its possible to be so certain over migration that date back over four millennium.
What is certain is that these people certainly came from the region of central africa from where they and or their culture begin expanding to other parts of sub-saharan africa around 2000 BC
The cause of these migrations are believed to have been the result of an increasingly settled agricultural in lifestyle although needing little land (for less than herding cattle) land had to be fertile and well watered for cultivation to be or viable altenative
“they were neither planed nor instantaneous put took place gradually over hundreds and thousands of years allowing plenty of time for these people and their culture to spread and be influenced by other culture it came across”
I. NEIGHBORING OF PARE TRIBE:-
The neighboring of Pare tribe are Chaga from Moshi and also there Wadigo Wasambaa, from Tanga. Chaga tribe id divided in three that ae Warombo Wamachame and Wakibosho. All this tribes are the neighboring of pare tribe.
“The Pare were the main producers of Iron for which there was considerable demand by the Chaga and other adjacent population”
2) FACTORS OF THEIR MIGRATION:-
Economic factors of migration:-
Many Pare people before colonialism were lived in low land where they were produce tea, coffee, and rice is grown is the swampy But after European reach in Kilimanjaro they were tool away the land of Pare people (land alienation) and they moved them to the highland where they live up to know.
In 1890 a German geographer praised the areas stone terraces as being similar to European vineyards and stated that the north Pare irrigation system was a truly magnificient achievement for primitive people”
Political factors of migration:-
Pare tribe had their leader called Mfuma (chief) Muhammad Kibuha SIngo a local ruler of ame who died in January 1981, estimated to be aged between 120 and 140 years.
So during post colonial many Pare people were moved to the high land because their leader Mfumwa was died and also they were no people can lead them so they escape the ruling system of Germany who took their land in 1900 because German treated them badly.
Social factors migration:-
The Pare society also migrated to the highland were there forest which can help them to get traditional medicine fore cured their body. Also they lived from low land in order to get firewood which they can use for cooking food
“The local medicine called Mwana equhiwe was believed to be caused by a witch who had been able to take a piece of the placenta”
3) ACTIVITIES OF PARE TRIBE:-
Economic activities of pare tribe:-
The areas chief produce is tea, coffee, sisal and cinchona. Rice is grown in the swampy plains. The Pare lands are by Tanzanian standards, quite proeperous as its infrastructure of roads, electricity, telephone and piped water supply attests. An older infrastructure of irrigation furrows, stone lived terraces and sacred forests lies alongsides these never technologies and shows that the Pare landscape has been carefully managed for centuries.
Also Pare people engaged in trade of selling goods such as bbanan, maize with is from their home land.
Social activities of pare tribe:-
Traditionally music is practiced art in their community. At any time of the day or night some music was being made. Work songs also existed these were perfomed both during communal work like building weeding . before the introduction of western medicine there were certain symptoms which being cured using traditional medicine.
“Mwan equhiwe Ntembo was belieed to be caused by a witch who had been able to take a piece of the placenta”
Until the age of five or so for boys and until adolescence for girls children have the most contact with their mothers, sisters, and other female relatives.
Both boys and girls attend school if the parents can afford the fees. If there is not sufficient money for both to attend the boy is usually favored and the girl remains home to help mother until she gets married and moves away.
Cultural activities of Pare tribe:-
The Pare tribe as ethnic group in Tanzania the abcestors assume an extremely important role. Ancestor spirits are rememberd hrough various rituals and are believed to exert me significant influence on daily life.
At drinking occur beens so people pour a small libation of beer onto the ground in respect of the ancestors. In other cases a small vessel of beer is left in a special location as an offering to the ancestors”
In still other cases sacrifices of a chicken or got
4) MARRIAGE PROCESS:-
Marriage was traditionally considered to be the most significant event in the lives of both men and woman.
The system of polygamy Multiple wives guaranteed that all people married. The significance of bride wealth is increasing even among educated Africans.
“Most of Pare believe that divorce can not occur after wealth has been exchange and children are born”
Cttle are the primary items given in bride wealth. In determining the value of a prospective bride her family takes into account her health appearance and nowdays, her level of formal education. Failure of men to raise a high bride wealth prompts many of them to propose elopement a practice that is on the rise today.
5) MAJOR FOOD OF PARE:-
Makande is a typical dish of the Pare tribe, who live in the Pare mountains, and is popular throughout Tanzania. The dish is a kind of stew maize and beans onions, Garlic tomatoes and chicken stock and its normal prepared on Friday and lasts through Sunday evening which gives people more time to socialize during the weekend without warrying about cooking the food is kept in a big clay pot on the damp ground so it stays cool.
6) TYPES OF CLOTHING STYLE OF PARE TRIBLE:-
These people were minimal clothing. Animal hides were used to cover privates parts, but there was no stigma (shame) associated with nudity nowdays clothing style are largely western in origin. They vary according to a person social class and life style preferences.
7) EFFECTS OF EFFECTS FOR THEIR MOVEMENT:-
Economic effects for tribe movement:-
Due to the land alienation by German Pare were shifted to the highland where they were get the place to live. This was caused much distraction of cutting down of trees due to the establishment of settlement
Theywere no more produce the agriculture because in high lad agriculture was not survive very well this led them to produce small scale agriculture which was dominated by mixed cultivation.
Social effects for the Pare tribe movements:-
This was good to them because after Pare people shifted to highland they got medicine which help to treat them. This is because before the introduction of western medicine there were certain symptoms which were being cured using traditional medicine.
“Mwana equhine Ntembo wa believed to believed to be caused by a witch who had been able to take a piece of the plancenta”
Political activities of pare tribe:-
Mfumwa Chief Muhammad Kibacha Singo a local ruler of same who died in January 1982. Estimated to be aged between 120 and 140 years. He was ruling Pare people in a good way, he also know as round makers. Mfumwa had the assistance who helped him in ruling system also those assistance were acted as a link between him self and people who lead. This is because the assistance were transfer information to the follower of Mfumwa.
Also there Ugweno Kingdom of northern Pare emerged in the 17th century. This kingdom were typical iron smith they were produce much iron. It was Germany colony era lasted until 1963 when the chiefdom was abolished by an independent.
Political effects for pare tribe movement:-
Sheridan (2004) documents on source and oral histories to explain how the altering of post colonial and management in the North Pare (currently known as Mwanga) mountains affected environment conditions colonial forest management and water policies were all abandoned environmental degradation and aspect including environmental degradation and a drop in the management capacity. This is because colonialism dominated in high land where was the source of water.
8) HEALING PROCESS OF PARE TRIBE:-
Before the introduction of western medicine there were certain symptoms which were being cured using traditional medicine, children used to suffer was a fungal ailment thought to come from the mothers breast. It was treated by giving the child sheep’s milk instesd of the breast.
 Kimambo N.I. and Temu A.J (1969) A HISTORY OF TANZANIA ; EAPH