Jumanne, 3 Juni 2014
History is the records of past human activities that are taking place on the earth surface. Teaching methods are different principles and methods that are used to instruct students in a learning environment.
The methods used by a teacher will depend on the skills or information the teacher would like to convey to their students. Some of the most common teaching methods are memorization, class participation, recitation, and demonstration. While these teaching methods are widely used, every instructor has a specific teaching method. Teachers must be flexible in their methods and often adjust their style of teaching to accommodate their students.
Efficient teaching methods are essential tools that can help student’s achieve success in the classroom. Each student has a different personality and learning abilities. There are several factors that a teacher must consider when choosing a teaching method for their students. Some determining factors for selecting a teaching method include the student’s interest and background knowledge, as well as their environment and learning abilities. Teachers also help their students learn with various learning aids such as Auditory, Kinesthetic (collaborating), and Visual. Instructors use these teaching methods to help students understand and complete class assignments.
Teaching methods often include lesson plans that students can use to help retain and recall information. Various forms of teaching methods used with lesson plans are explanation, demonstration, and collaboration. Explanation is similar to a lecture that provides detailed information about a specific subject. Demonstrations are used to provide visual learning opportunities from a different viewpoint, and collaboration allows students to part
TYPES OF TEACHING METHOD;
There are two main types of teaching method which are non-participatory method and participatory method, they are considered as the major categories though on non-participatory methods only one type’s can used which is lecture method. This can be applied in the high population or large number of students in the class.
The following are the major methods of teaching that are applied as the participatory methods of teaching especially in teaching history;
Story telling method, this is mainly applied as the main method of teaching particularly in the low population. For stance when teaching in the class you mainly may decide to choose the certain topic and tell the story related so as to attract he students from understanding of the lesson.
“In the class a teacher ensure that the time scheduled in the time
Table the scheme of work the lesson plan and the lesson notes
Are all flowing in a smooth way contrary to the preacher who
Had no scheme of work, lesson plan or table to follow.
This gives a teacher a special position and
Differentiation or her from other professionals”
Demonstration method. Teaching strategies is the careful plan of actions to achieve a goal, or the art of developing, or carryout such a scheme. This is an elaborate and systematic plan of Action. This are all plan made to help learners to access the information. Teaching strategies can apply for this and not for that. Teaching strategies should aim at involving audio, visual, and audiovisual and kinesthetic. The demonstration method may be applied in small class different from lecture method that can be applied where the population is high.
Questions and answers method. This method also refers to the system under which applied by teaching in the class to make sure that the students are memorizing and assure the understanding is becoming very high in class.
“The prior knowledge of the student is considered to be of very important. From this fountain is where the trench of knowledge is
dug to make a big and wide canal of knowledge”.
So this assure the students with the teacher to share deferments issues
Debates method. This is applied by the teacher depending on the nature of the class that whoever the class is small or large, it will enable a teacher to design on the changes upon a class. For example;
“Attaining of Instructional objectives depend on the method used.
If the objectives need the student to list, mention or naming then the
Teaching method, Strategies and Techniques must relate sting and mention”.
Example if the instructional objective require student to make soap. The teaching method should be Experimental and Demonstration.
The guest of honor. Guest is a person who is new/ stranger who visiting a certain area with a certain purpose person who is not a native of certain place This method is one of the methods that can be applied in teaching history subject. Therefore under this method of teaching history a teacher is supposed to share also some ideas with the student though more knowledge is from the instructor.
“The prior knowledge of the student is considered to be of very important.
From this fountain is where the trench of knowledge is dug to make a big
And wide canal of knowledge”.A teacher is an artist as in fact teaching itself is an art that requires somebody to create several methods or techniques to be applied teaching.
Explanation method. This is the method under which the instructors tend to use the lesson notes from different sources to brainstorming his or her student and assuring them to understand the lesson as well. Here the teacher act as the main instructor and the students tend to listen to him or her when explaining.
“This should be done early in order to prepare
students psychologically, to rise their morally and
aspiration, make them exited and to meet the
emotional need of the student”.
Study tour method. This method applied in small class where a teacher is advised to take the students out of the school compass so as to lean as from the different environment of study. For ristance the teaching may take the student to the historical sites when teaching them about the source of historical information. . (Title, status, experience, Belief or Philosophy). Explain the importance of credibility Cloud Said
“This will make the student to know the importance of
the phenomenon that they are studying. By doing that
then the learner may believe in what they are taught”.
Under such method a teaher has got the groung in eplainning the subject matters.
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE CHOICE OF THE METHOD OF TEACHING IN HISTORY;
There are several factors that determine the choice of the methods to applied in teaching history subject
The nature of the learners. For example the slow learners or fast learners. If the number of slow learners in the class is higher than that of faster learners it will force a teacher to use such a method that is very easier for those slow learners to understand the lesson or subject maters., some of them are as follows;
The number of the students available in the given class. This will guide a teacher to choose the best method to be applied in teaching the particular subject that contained in the topics. For example if the class has about the number of student approaching may be 35 a teacher can easily manage that class easily rather than a big class of 80 students.
Availability of teaching and learning aids. For stance teaching materials that a teacher use to establish and use to the learners to emphasize the subject. The instructor will be forced to use a method that will enable the students to understand the lesson on time and become able to construct such a subject and run for all students.
Educational philosophy of the country. The philosophy of country basing on education has got the great effects to the development of the lesson as well as in choosing the methods which can be used to teach several subject maters in the country.
Teacher’s ability and preference. If the teacher is very competent to the subject matter in which he or she is teaching the class it’s very easier for him or her to choose the best method of teaching such a subject.
Cultural aspect of the society. For example if the certain society has their own behavior in studying a professional teaching actually look to the class and establish the method which can be easily understood for all students in a particular class.
Examination set up. This also limits the method to be applied in teaching such a subject. For example the teachers always look for the examinations format and teach the students in a way that make them becoming able to answer such examination that are facing them.
Time bound. The methods of teaching history are actually bounded by the time. So for the certain teacher to establish the method of teaching he or she should consider first the time that available for covering of the topic.
For any teacher who is teaching history he or she should understand that teaching history is an art, it requires somebody who is very creative in establishing the subject matter to be applied in teaching several topics for example teaching colonial economy topic is different from teaching the topic of nationalism so it need a creative teacher who may create different methods to be applied depending on the nature of the subject and topic. In the topic of establishment of colonialism a teacher may use story telling method the n after start the topic by the historical background of what is colonialism. it is quite different in teaching others subjects matters.
1. Bello J. Y. (1981). Basic Principle of Teaching. John Willey and Sons Ibadan.
2. Bishop. (1995) Curriculum Development: A Text book for Student Macmillan Publishers Limited London
3. Geoffrey n. brown.(1967) A Guide for Teachers in Africa .George Allen and Unwin ltd, Nigeria
4. Has Lucky.(1963).The Teacher of History, Cambridge university press, Cambridge
5. Hudgins, B.B. (1971).The Instructional Processes. Rand and Mc Nally company .Chicago
6. Farrant, J.S. (1990) Principles and Practices of Education . Longman Group. UK. Limited Essex
7. Michael, Murphy (1996) Plain English Dictionary (Harper Collins Publishers England
8. Nacino,Brown, R, Oke, F.E.Brown, D.P. (1992) Curriculum and Instruction; An Introduction to Methods of Teaching. Macmillan Press Limited London
Listening is the active and dynamic process of attending, perceiving, interpreting, remembering and responding to the expressed verbal and non-verbal needs, concerns, and information offered by other human beings.
This definition is more specific, emphasizing the need for attention, perceiving and interpreting and remembering. In addition it focuses our attention on the all important needs and concerns of real people .English language learners often say” Listening is easier than speaking” and they may be right to think that because listening is a receptive skill, not a production one. Listening involves factors that can affect comprehension, sometimes in circumstances that they cannot control is when they listen to the radio, and they cannot tell the speaker to slow down, to repeat or to explain things for them. So it depends on their language proficiency to understand what he or she talking about.
There are many factors which affect listening; some of them are hot words, Environmental factor, rehearsing a response, person bias, daydreaming, a short attention use of filtering, clustering, redundancy, reduction, variables, speed, prosodic elements and lack of interaction. I will explain those factors as follows;-
First of all the presence of hot words can affect listening due to, all human being have certain words that we react to, sometimes when a speaker uses a hot word in his or her message we will concentrate more on the meaning of the word or its implication for us. Consequently we tend to lose sight of what is being said by the speaker.
Secondly, listening can be affected by environmental factor such as noise, temperature and uncomfortable seating can cause us to focus our attention on other factors besides what the speaker is saying. We must try to control environmental factors whenever possible. We must try to adjust the thermostat and finding another seat or moving to a quite place to continue the conversation. It is hard to focus attention when we are constantly distracted by outside forces.
Thirdly, rehearsing a response also can be a factor that affect listening, you know many times we catch the drift of what the speaker is saying and we begin to rehearse a response, there by missing parts of the message. Other times we may be anticipating our turn to speak and will spend time mentally or physically reviewing notes and will miss what the speaker has said.
Not only that but also person bias can affect listening. Bias can take on many forms, person prejudice can affect how well we listen and how we perceive what the speaker is saying. Anger can also cause distortion of the message. Be willing to listen to new ideas, make eye contact with the speaker use non-verbal communication such as nodding your head or smiling to show what you are interested. Even if you do not agree with the speaker’s message showing acceptance will left the speaker know that you have received their message.
In addition to that short attention also can affect listening, as we receive a message we must attend to it or we will lose it .Some people have trouble remembering points to discuss when the speaker is talking. Try taking notes as the speaker talks or use of cue to help your remember what you were going to say. If you find your attention wandering, concentrate on what the speaker is saying and rehearse how you will answer or what you are going to say to keep your mind on the task at hand .Ask grist’s to clarify and to become involved in the conversation. Concentration helps you to receive correct information and indicates that you are interested in what the speaker is saying.
Daydreaming is also affect listening in one or another way. We are capable of receiving and processing information more rapidly than a speaker can deliver it. This causes us to have spare time to think or daydream and if we don’t concentrate on the message being delivered, we will find ourselves drifting or daydream.
Also filtering can affect listening, you know many times we will be asked to attend a seminar where we exhibit little or no interest in the topic. As listeners, we tend to listen to get an overview of what is going to be presented and then simply tune out the rest of the message.
Not only that but also Clustering can affect listening. Clustering refers to people's predisposition for breaking down speech into smaller groups of words. English language learners need to learn how to pick up manageable clusters of words and not try to take in several sentences or to understand every single word in an utterance.
Redundancy is another element that affects listening. Rephrasing, repetitions, elaborations and insertion of repetitive words like "you know" or "right?" can distract the listener from the content of the message. Learners need to acknowledge that these repetitions actually work to their advantage, as they give them more time to process the real information.
Another factor which affects listening is Reduction; this is natural to native speakers, that's why learners of English may find it difficult to "catch" the sense of the words even during a normal speech process. Assimilation and elision, elliptical answers for example;"Where are you going?" "Home." for "I'm going home." or contractions for example; "I'll" for "I will" are hard to understand the idioms and colloquial elements that native English speakers normally use some examples may be the very frequent forms for example; 'wanna," "gonna'" or "y'all.
Variables also can affect listening, this point touch all people except for lectures or speeches that are planned forms of speaking discourse, natural spoken language has several elements that change the message unintentionally. Learners should be able, with practice, to ignore them and to focus on the real content. Hesitations, pauses, false starts and self-corrections are variables that native speakers are used to hearing and can separate from the message.
Rate of delivery of the message (speed) is another element that affects a proper listening . While a native speaker believes he is speaking at a normal speed, language learners think they speak too fast, especially because they need more time to "weed out" variables while paying attention to the message as it flows.
Stress, rhythm and intonation are prosodic elements that can affect listening. The way words are stressed differ from other languages and the rhythm in English might not resemble the learner's first language, so he will find it difficult to master. Intonation may also differ; learners should become familiar with discriminating between the rising pitch ("Ready?") and the falling pitch ("Yes.").
Lack of interaction is another negative element that affects listening comprehension. Even if, as a principle, listening does not require speaking, interaction can help learners practice negotiation, taking turns, starting, maintaining and ending a conversation.
Listening is an important part of effective communication. We need to concentrate on encouraging none only student, but ourselves, to exhibit good listening behaviors and strategies. Listening is a process that involves actively hearing what another person is communicating and attending to that communication. Listening is how we receive the verbal portion of a person’s message. By listening, we can show concern and interest in understanding both the person and the situation.
Listening and comprehension can definitely benefit from some basic training in the skills used. There are four basic steps to help improve comprehension of the information being presented. First, determine your reason for listening to the information. Being able to anticipate what information will be presented can help improve comprehension. Second, be selective. Focusing on the information important to your purpose and ignoring irrelevant information will maximize comprehension. Third, be flexible in the use of top-down and bottom-up skills; being able to switch from one skill set to the other as necessary will improve comprehension. Fourth, if you are aware of a failure to comprehend some of the information, review it using a different ski
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A teacher is the person whose his occupation is to instruct others in order to give knowledge and skills or is the one whose business is to teach the students in order to give them skills and knowledge. And he or she use the participatory method during teaching activities According to Tarrant define a word teacher as a facilitator as he wrote,
“a teacher is a person who facilitates the acquisition of knowledge
by directing the students in a formal education”
A Preacher is someone who instructs others in religion or is a minister of the gospel sometimes one who preaches without regular ordination. According to plan English dictionary define a preacher as follows, “is a person who conduct religion sermon, he residing ceremonies
And sermon people about the word of god or giving homilies”
The following are the roles used by the teachers during teaching activities these are like
Councilor; the teacher is someone who is trained to listen people and the students their problems and give them the advice maybe there was some students having the problems of the school fees, the problems of getting pregnant for the some of the girls at the young age, and others they engaged in bad groups like the uses of drugs abuse, and also others engaged in peers groups so as we know that the teacher is like the judge so he or she use the opportunity of counseling them.
According to Nacino. Brown “the teacher is a spiritual director in his ways he plays both the roll
of the teacher and the preacher the spiritual welfare of the student depend
on the way the teacher is rising them, half of the student time
is on the hands of the teacher”
Role model; the teacher is someone whose looking like a model in a societies and others imitates from the teacher so students learned through the teacher behavior and imitate from him those good things they learnt from him or her. Examples if you want students to use quite voices in your classroom while they work, you too will use a quit voice as you move through the room helping them. So through those situations children learns through him because he is like model.
Guider; is the act or process of guiding so one of the responsibilities of teacher is to guide the learners during teaching activities, also he or she used their ability to supervise the students into the good situations examples he guides students when their at classroom, while doing the exercise and also guide them during teaching activities in order to make sure that the students they learnt in a good According to Bello put it in this way
“A responsible teacher is the guardian of the student through
his actions and words not merely his directive actions in the class”
Leader; is someone who has an authority of supper vice people so one of the job of the teacher is to make sure that the students their in good situations he or she supervise the students in learning maters like to make sure that they get good education.
Communicator; is someone who looking as a media of communication between him and their students at the educational matter so his job is to make sure that what they teaching was been understood well by their students.
Advisor; is the someone who spend a lot of his time to advice people so one of the work of a teacher is to advice the students in their studies or during the occurrence of the problems facing them like the problem in their subjects they study and also when they have got the problems of school fees so the work of teacher is to advice them.
Manager; is someone whose manage something so the teacher is the someone who manages the students during the periods of studies to make sure that the knowledge and the ability which give to them helping them for their futures. He should manage class and understand the development of every students.
According to Richard he said, “In the class a teacher ensure that the time scheduled
in the time table the scheme of work the lesson
plan and the lesson notes are flowing in a smooth way”
TECHNIQUES USED BY THE TEACHER DURING THE TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Question and answer methods. This is the methods which teacher used during the periods of teaching he used to ask questions to their students and answer the questions which the children’s used to ask him or her so through this participatory method the students improved well. and didn’t forget the lesson and makes them become aware with the lessons.
Story telling methods; can be defined as an art of using language vocalization and physical movement and gestures which help teacher to reach his or her imagination she should be able to supplement her story telling with audio visual aids, and by asking developmental and other types of questions. This methods of teaching help in attracting the attention of the pupils, also this methods makes the lesson lovely and interesting to the pupils and also it was good way which is participatory methods it makes the pupils to participate well in the lesson.
Debate methods; this is the participatory methods which the teachers used during teaching their learners. in this methods the teacher introduce the lessons and give the students discussing the lessons into their group discussions so through this methods every students should participate and this methods help them to remember well the lessons because they don’t forget.
Guest of honor methods; this is the participatory methods which the teacher used during his teaching activities in this methods teachers should invites the guess to teach the lessons which he or she should not familiar examples teacher should invite the doctors in teaching the topic of reproduction to the form three students so through that the students should enjoy the lessons.
Reading methods; is the participatory methods which teachers used during the teaching his or her lesson there many types of reading methods this are like, chorale reading, in this methods teacher and students read a story together and loud into their small groups so through this kind help to builds reading comprehension and fluency. Cued reading a teacher utilizes introduction discussion about a story before reading this builds study comprehension and interest in reading. Echo reading a teacher reads a text, one sentences at a time as the students follows a long the students then attempts to imitate the teacher this technique build fluency and confidence in oral reading skills, group dynamic reading, in this type the students and teacher take in turns in reading the text at first the children follows what the teacher reads with their fingers after this the students read while the teacher listens this builds oral reading skills and fluency, silent reading in this types students read silently for specified period of time this methods build the confidence in reading skills, but should only be used when students are ready.
Project methods; is an activity that typically involves a current outlay of funds in expectation of a stream of benefits extending far into future. This also is the participatory methods the responsibility of teacher is to provide those situations to the students where they should feel a sponteous urge to some of their practical problems the teacher may converse with the class on different topics of interest to them this methods enable the students to know about the long term ,medium term, and short term of rural people of finance, enable students know about the various agencies which provide finance the rural areas and their merits and demerities, to enable the student know about the various banking operations and also they makes students to be self reliant confident and independendent, makes students more research minded.
Dramatization methods; is the acting of little plays is an effective device. it is not only a change from the routine teaching but also a method to teach English the teacher can select suitable extracts from the readers for dramatization but there should an element of drama in them they provide for some interesting action and play, the objectives of dramatization are to reinforce structures, provide for conversational to create necessary background for effective learning ,and the selection of short plays depends on pupils interests, their age group, and previous knowledge. The role of the teacher for dramatization the teacher acts as the director he should teach the actors to speak the dialoques properly to modulate their voice, and he must give proper actions for acting their relies. Also he can the entire play and the mental set up of each character such instructions help them to play their roles and to appreciate the action of the drama. This methods it provides ample opportunities for listening to colloquial English, pupils can listen to dialoques and understand them. It enable students to play different roles. Enable them to use colloquial languages in their daily speaking and also pupils can learn art of acting.
Study tours methods; is the methods which teachers used by travels from one area to another areas for the aims of studies examples teachers when he or she wants to teach about physical geography subjects in form three class he goes with the students to the trips and studies many things like physical vegetations the plateaus, meanders, about the rocks and others features or travelling to the national parks, the industrials areas and also in the mining areas so through that participatory methods students they enjoying an become happy.
I conclude in saying that a teacher is not a preacher because a teacher is the one who is function is to teach the students and he used different participatory methods in teaching their students in order their subject to be understood well while the preacher is someone whose preach the word of the gods to those believers the following are the methods used by the teacher during learning activities this methods are like dramatization, storytelling, debate, question and answer, reading project ,study tour and so on and also teacher has the following roles first he was a facilitators, councilor, role model ,guider, leader, advisor, manager, and also a communicator so in my opinions I say it was true that a teachers is not a preacher due to the above mentioned.
1. Bello J.Y(1981) Basic Principles of Teaching. John Willey and sons Ibadan.
2.Bishop .G. (1995) Curriculum Development: A Text book for Student Macmillan Publishers Limited London
3. Farrant J.S.(1990) Principles and Practices of Education . Longman Group. UK. Limited Essex
4.Hudgins B.B (1971) The Instructional Process Rand McNally company Chicago
5.Michael, Murphy (1996)Plain English Dictionary (Harper Collins Publishers England
6.Nacino-Brown,R,Oke,F.E.Brown,D.P.(1992)Curriculum and Instruction; An Introduction to Methods of Teaching. Macmillan Press Limited London
7.Richard,I. A.(1998) Learning to teach. McGraw-Hill New York
8.Seel,A and Power. (2003) Active Learning. Save the Children London.
Jumapili, 18 Mei 2014
Revolution refers as the overthrowing of certain system of life and acquiring the modern one which is more advance.
industrial revolution refers the system of economic and social political changes that reflected the shift from the manufactured system based on manual labor to large scale machine industry or is refer to social and economic changes that mark the transitions from stable agriculture and commercial societies to a modern
Background of industrial revolution it seemed that in the period of 13th and 16thc it was the periods of revolutionary in economic changes as some historians argues, France is country which in western European countries and German also which formed the result of massive unification of small states like Prussian.
By 1914 the French industrialization was still in complete in agriculture activities which did not undergo extensive modernization and mechanize so the French peasant continued and had the greater influence over industrial sector it was until 1931 that the urbanization reached fifty percent so up to the 19th century Europe shaped into two revolutions French and industrial revolution came with idea of liberty, fraternity and equality.
Germany industrial revolution started at the mid of the 18th century under supervisions of Fredrick the great he emphasis the development of twining and metallurgy before 1850 Germany was backward in agriculture. By 1914 had become advanced in industrial and urbanized country in Europe. The development of German influenced by influx of British, Belgium, Swiss and French, as the result of this external influence region like Silesia, Saxons had experience substantial industrialization by 1830 and 1850 Germany enjoy the growth of coal, textile and iron industries.
At the end in 1870-1914 the growth of large scale industries in Europe continued rapidily example of the countries was already strongest in economic growth of their industries is like Britain, France, Belgium, German and others.
Industrialization in France, the following are the steps or the stages of industrialization in France,
The down of the industrialization France industrialization can be traced back at the period of 18th centuary in 1750-1789 it was not along term as it was short cut of the French revolution and napolionic wars 1792-1815 and in this period it seemed that the industrialization was occurred due to increase of population and this situation led to the prevision of market and availability of cheap labour for industry “The industrial revolution profoundly modified much of human experience”1
Drive towards industrialization 1815-1850 many historians explained this period like a periods of take off of French revolutionary industry. And here the industrialization was supported by political stability of the country , high quality of product of the material from industries and also improvements of transport system such as canals and this were done at the period of 1830 to 1840
The upper stage of industrialization 1850-1870 in 1850-1870.At this period France had acquired the characteristics of modern industrial economy this achievement established by expansion of coal, iron, construction of railways and engineering industries, Development of investment banks, Authority of Napoleonic regime 1851-1870 Maintained internal political instability which was conducive for industrial investment and innovation.
Drive towards industrial maturity 1870-1914 at this period the France attained substantial industrial and technological investment Germany and Britain included there
Industrialization in Germany at this periods of 1830-1950 German industries faced some of the difficulties like that the country was not yet intergrated in the world capitalist economy Agrarian revolution was not yet, Agriculture depression and also Germans faced a lot of challenges in developed countries like British which producing higher of quality and quantity goods.
Take of periods of 1850-1873 during this periods it seemed that Germany productions were increase for example during unifications of German production were increase ,banking system also were improved there were success in military activities, the transport and railways were also improved the population increased and also government become stable in political affairs.
Consolidation stage during the period of 1873 to 1914 Germany become mature industrial nation with high performance of economy throughout of Europe and this changes enable the countries to increase the income per capital were grew, there were high rate of manufacturing goods, and a half of the world trade share the German electrical products and it seem that ninety percent of the countries in the world buy those goods from the Germany.
The following are the causes of the industrialization in France and Germany this cause is as follows;
Scientific Revolution it leads to the improvement of factory system through the use of the machines rather than using labor this invention and innovations contribution of scientific revolution it also led to the improvement of agriculture through the use of fertilizer it also led the improvement of transport system, constructions of canals and improvement of railways.
So through scientific revolution the industries was opened through innovations of steam engine
Which provide the power source According to Steven and his follows “No single invented the steam engine, the steam engine was culmination of the work of many people”2
Agriculture Revolution due to the use of fertilizers the crops were grown well and the productions were grown into higher percent and this helps Germany and France to supply a lot of food stuffs into the other countries in the worlds and this situation lead the economy of these countries become higher.
Development of investment banks through provision of loans and credits to the industrial development of those countries and through provide different company within the state example in 1852 the France bank provide credit which provide funds into industry and the growth of stock companies. France and Germany encourage banks development since it seemed that the most of the economist banks can generate the state provision various sectors of economy example agriculture through loan provision and subsidize.
Population growth due to industrial revolution it seemed that the population of France and Germany became higher and this help the constant supply of labour in various sectors like in industries, mining, agriculture and also this situation led the internal markets improved well due to the availability of people who buys and sells and also the needs of food, shelter and clothes were increased example in France help of population were increase at the year of 1931 in the 19th century
“This had happened already in the 1850’s and by 1914 nearly four-fifths of her people lived in towns in Germany by the same time and date the figure was about three fifths in France on the other hand where agriculture maintained its old high place feather more people continue to live in the country than in towns”3.
Commercial revolution, this was the development of merchantalist which led to the gradual accumulation of capital through accumulation of raw materials like minerals, ivory and cotton from Africa during the triangular trade of 17th century it lead the expansion of European industries. Germany it self made the greatest industrial producers in Europe by 1914’s she was behind Britain in the extent and value of her trade ,this was costed as follow’s
“From about 1870 Britain gradually cased to be the workshop of the world but she remained the world main exporter, import and financier she was also still the worlds main carrier owning by 1914 about three-sevenths of the world’s total damage of shipping in Europe, Germany came next with about a quarter of Britain tonnage and France third with less than half Germany’s”4
Establishment of custom unions, this also one of the causes of industrialization of Germany and France because it allow the overflow of goods and service it remove trade barriers and through establishment of customs unions it seem that the markets were expended and in hence the production increase, example favourable commercial agreement with Britain and Belgium in 1841 and 1844 adopted common commercial policy.
“Franche suddenly flooded with cheaper and better English goods
in order to protect the French economy, the French government
responded by lying high tarrifs on many English imports”5
Occurrence of iron and steel the presence of iron and coal from the province of iron and coal from the province in Lorraine and during the period of triangular trade between African and Europe the industrial revolution become grown up due to the availability of those minerals which were used by the industries to make different things like infrastructures, tools vehical and soon.
Availability of the resources especially energy resources for industrial development in france and Germany iron and coal was needed by their industries because it was used in domestic and industrial purposes for the steam engine and water power uses around 19th century iron, mining and industry was rapid expand ,iron provided raw materials for heavy industries especially used in manufacturing different tools
“Well beyond 1914 coal remained by for the most important source of European industrial energy, it was used for direct heat as in metal smelting or for production of steam to drive locomotive ships and all kinds of machinery often it was employed in the form of coal gas”6
Occurrence of good infrastructures this is about the existence of the roads, railways, water transport, canals they are easy way for transportation and communication, raw materials were transported from different productive sectors to the industries most countries like Germany,Britain, and France their transport are easy due to the presence of enough infrastructures
Effects of industrials revolution in Germany and France the following bellow are the effects of industrial revolution those effects as follows
Employment opportunities is among of the effects which leads with the precence of industrial revolution a lot of the people get employment in different sectors like agriculture sector ,mining sector at industrial sectors and other organizations this situation makes the life of the people become well people lives in good standards of life.
It leads to the improvement of the social services due to the industrial activities in France and Germany the social services like electric ties, schools, hospitals water ,people become healthy due to the presence of medicines. Growth of towns due to the presence of electricity’s and soon
It led to the stable government due to the industrial revolution the France and Germany politically they become well because their government are economically well there was abandunt of foods people lives in high standards of life the countries are well in military due to the availability of weapons which were manufactured by their countries. And also due to the good leader ships of their leaders within their countries.
Occurance of towns it leads to the emergence of urbanizations and increase in population continued for instance between 1870 and 1914 every country in Europe develop a number of large cities in Germany the same date the figure was about three to fifth population and in france also so this situation lead the people to live in towns and hence it leads to the growth of urbanizations.
It lead to the growth per capital income for examples before the total industrialization in Germany and France the income decreases to the extent that most of people started to create the riots but after the emergence of industrial revolution per capital income within the France and Germany societies developed in all aspects of life that their in domestic and national in terms of Gross product (GNP)
Development of economy in Europe industrial revolution bring development in the economy of European countries like France and Germany due to the emergence of mechanized Agriculture, trade and commercial developments to gather with mining so through that situations we saw that how those countries developed well.
“Though there was a good deal of progress after the emancipation of the serfs the real sports begun in the 1890’s with the appointment of the railway administrator sergins with as finance and the beginning of direct state intervention in key industries this was greatly helped by France”7
It speed the movement of good and services it’s true that the industrial revolution in European countries especially German and France the movement of goods and services like finished goods from industries transferred from one countries to another due to the presence of infrastructures so the materials were transferred more easly through out of the world.
“ This night both enlarge the demand for European manufactured goods and at the same time make available to Europe such large quantities of food or raw materials from the nearly accessible regions as to alter greatly the previous pattern of trade”8
Improvement of living standards of the people due to the presence of industrial revolution many life of people changed due to the availability of new materials from the industries people employment in their industries the social services like school, hospital and other services which are importance to the life of human being was also among of the factors which cause the improvement of the standards of the people lives like living in good houses ,having safe water and soon.
It leads to the rice of profesionalist due to the industrial revolution in Europe during 19th centuary it seemed that due to the discover the steam engine the proffesionalist like james watt and others were occur due to these process so those proffessionalists they used they discover many things through maide with in their industries so this situations leads leads the emergence of proffesionalists in different parts of urope especially the France countries and Germany countries. According to the Germany journalist and thinker Fredrick list 1789-1846 dedicated and wrote as follows,
“Wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations
Becomes, the more dangerous it is to remain behind”8
To sum up the point above all I was written is among of the causes and effects of industrial revolution in Germany and France which cause and the effects like colonization of African countries due to the needed of raw materials, markets, areas for investments , cheep labour and potentialities of Africans especially for agriculture and mining extractions and this situations led the growth of urbanization, presence of good social services and the countries become well in military activities
Edward.Marcmall Borns,Robert E.lerner.(1980) WORLD CIVILIZATIONS United states of America,ww. Norton and company. Inc.
Kenneth clark. (1969) CIVILAZATION: A PERSONAL VIEW, United states of America: Newyork.
Mckay Hill Buckler. (1992). A HISTORY OF WOLD SOCIETIES; Volume 11 Since 1500,Printed in U.S.A: New York.
Palmer Cotton Kramer, (2007). A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD: SINCE 1815, Published by mcgraw-Hill, a business unit of the mcgraw-Hill companies. America: Newyork
T.walter wall band, (1990), HISTORY AND LIFE, Scottland, Foresman