Posted by Emmanuel Mgina on 13:14 with 1 comment
Independence:- refers to the act of being free from foreign domination, many African countries started to gain independence during the 19thcentury, and this was political independence which generally referred to “flag independence” despite that Africans got their political independence still African remained indirectly penetration of foreign domination  political, social and economically and military of a political independence  had little impact on the life style of masses that’s why has been referred to ceremonial independence.
What is flag independence:- , flag independence this refers to the type of independence that the African countries attained during their struggle from 50s to 80s from their colonial masters; it was a ceremonial independence of hosting national flag and bringing down the colonial flags, but still African remained victims of foreign domination in all spheres of life political economically and socially remained dependent to their to their former colonial masters and at time it’s referred to as neo-colonialism
Development:-generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. Economic development can also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actions can involve multiple areas including development of human capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy, and other initiatives.
Africa, a continent endowed with immense natural and human resources as well as great cultural, ecological and economic diversity, remains underdeveloped. Most African nations suffer from military dictatorships, corruption, civil unrest and war, underdevelopment and deep poverty. The majority of the countries classified by the UN as least developed are in Africa. Numerous development strategies have failed to yield the expected results, although some.
MEASURES TAKEN BY TANZANIA TO REVIVE HER ECONOMY SINCED 1961:-
            After the whole movement of struggle for independence in Africa the next stage was economic revival, this is due to the fact that the colonialist left African economy at a bad condition, this was due to the fact that the European on exploited African resource, and did not care for African economy the following are the measures taken by Tanzania to revive her economy since 1961.
            To alleviate poverty in Tanzania:- after independence and before independence Tanzania had huge number of poor people and even did not meet their basic needs,  After independence the new government struggled to alleviate poverty  so as all people could be able to get their basic needs to support this Kato.A said

Poverty in Africa can be solved by increasing income in every family/home , this can be solved by increasing employment opportunity to the masses as to increase their purchasing power by providing  free and subsidized basic necessities to reduce the expenditure of the masses which may include medical, school fee and food”[1]
 To create a government of democracy and transparency:- after independence Tanzania formally known as Tanganyika started to create a good government of democracy and transparency so as to make the government to undergo development ,this situation made Tanzania to archive some development in government system hence the whole country developed to support this Kato.A said
To create a government of democracy and transparency where by corruption can be checked and lavishing government expenditure should be checked and be stopped this could help development of Tanzania and manage to revive her economy which was badly affected by colonialism and its evils such as colonial economy sectors”[2]
Equal distribution of national cake:-during colonialism in Tanzania all major means of production were owned by White people and after independence only few people had access to major means of production such as land, industries and mines hence the majority suffered much with poverty and even failed to obtain their basic needs, this made the government to distribute the national cake equal to all people in the country to support this Kamili.Z said
Equal distribution of national cake by stopping nepotism where by only few people of one tribe or one region that dominate the government and enjoy the sweet job, equal representation should be placed to all regions and tribe in the government”[3]

 To elect capable leaders:- the situation after independence Tanzania lacked capable leaders, this is due to the fact that few people of Tanzania had access to education and the majority were ignorant and this made the masses of Tanzania to remain illiterate and this brought the problem of competent leaders in Tanzania in a government system due to the fact that only chiefs sons’ and daughters’ had access to education and their number was few because of the nature of colonial education which had series of exams so as to reduce the number of graduates and after independence the country lacked enough number of leader 
To elect capable leaders who are patriotic and able to care for their people with good economic plans for development of the people and self-development by doing so development of a country could be possible”[4]
              
To provide education and technical education:-after independence government thought that the masses should get education so as the can solve the problem of unemployment and engage into serious economic ventures/business, this calls for revising national syllabus which trains job seekers instead of job creators.
            To get rid of neo-colonialism:-This is another way of colonial legacies are perpetuated in our countries. Neo-colonialism is a situation where by politically independent country continue to be exploited by imperialist countries or muilt-national cooperation (MNCs), neo-colonialism is a new form of colonialism where, exploitation is facilitated by exciting government system and neo-colonialism operates by investing in production and services sectors in which case the investors control the decision making and import of raw material by using forex of the state concerned and finally repatriating all profit so to get rid of neo-colonialism could help the problem of economy in Tanzania to support this Kato.A said
“To get rid of neo-colonialism and develop and independent self-sustaining economy which could help to solve the problem of Africa without foreign intervention”[5]
            To diversify our economy:-this is from agriculture based to be both industrial and agriculture so as to create link between the two major sectors, what produced can be used as raw materials in industries and industries products can be purchase consume by the agricultural sector, this will increase the market base and solve the problem of poverty, this is by putting emphasis on the use of our national and human resources, adapting the appraise technology that is deliberate oriented in order to build up self-generating internal economy instead of being directed from outside to support this Kamili.Z said
“All third world countries should reject western standard of consumption both individual and society, western standards of living based on exploitation of the third world countries and their own poor people, therefore any attempts of any African countries and introduce these consumption standards to maintain themselves their privilege”

To promote national unity:-this have to be done among the Tanzanian and this was done due to the fact that before independence there was enmity among the tribes, this was because some of the tribes joined force with the colonialist to defeat their fellow African tribe  due to the fact that these tribes seemed to be strong than the other one’s, and these differences made development of the country to go slow simply because these tribes lacked cooperation, and made the government to start to promote unity among the Tanzania  so as to make unity possible the government create Ujamaa villages were different people from across the country could start production jointly to support this Kato.A said
“To promote national unity among the masses through one party system so as to avoid many party system that may bring division among the masses and also national language should be promoted as form unity of the people”[6]
            Introduction of national education:-after independence Tanzania was still using colonial education which prevented  many Tanzanian to have an access to education, this made only few people to get education and led to the problem of lack of capable leaders in the country and this was the huge problem to national development hence the government introduced national education so as to give room to all Tanzanian young children to get education and help in the process of development of the country and hence archive development  to support this Kato.A said

“Introduction of national education that is based on the environment of Africa and needs as to avoid colonial education that produced white collar job seekers inserted of job creators this definitely will solve the problem of mass unemployment”
            Constructions of local industries, also among the steps which taken by Tanzania to boost up their economy was to construct the local industries so as to accerelate the development in Tanzania so as to strengthen the economic in our country, for example they built the sido industry in Arusha due to the steps were taken
            Introduction of villagilazation policy, the aim of this was to built up the development in agriculture, the villagers should suppose to organize themselves so as to put more effort in agriculture production and all crops which they got it used for country.
            Establishment of financial institutions, also there were emergence of financial institutions that was used to boost up agriculture productions, these institutions were used to finance the agriculturilists to support them in agriculture productions,for example there were different of financial institutions like NMB bank, B.O.T, the aim of these were to support agriculture productions.
 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE UP TO RECENT.
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT SINCE INDEPENDENCE:-
Since independence Tanzania had some development reached social and political which made the country to be at a better stage which made all people to experience independence despite other problem faced Tanzania in the process of development the following are the political and social development of Tanzania since independence up to recent.
Promoted democracy and good government:-since independence the country experienced peace and harmony this is due to democracy and good government un like other East African countries there is political misunderstanding for example Kenya in 2007 were many people died and Rwanda and Burundi genocide which made people in these countries to experience difficulties and lived as refuges in Tanzania simply because the country had democracy and good government to support this Kato.A said
“To create a government of democracy and transparency where by corruption can be checked and lavishing government expenditure should be checked and be stopped this could help development of Tanzania and manage to revive her economy which was badly affected by colonialism and its evils such as colonial economy sectors”[7]
           Creation of revolutionary party (CCM):-the party was created February 5, 1977 under the leadership of Julius Nyerere as the merge of Tanzania African national union (TANU),the ruling party in Tanganyika, and the afro-shiraz party (ASP),the ruling party in  Zanzibar. TANU/CCM has dominated the politics of Tanzania since the independence of Tanganyika in 1962. Due to the merger with the ASP, from 1977 it has been also the ruling party in Zanzibar, though there its grip on power has been more contested by the Civic United Front (CUF), and the party contributed much in the development of the country and this made the party to dominate the country since independence till to day
            Introduction of mult-partism 1992:-From its formation of CCM until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. Every five years, its national chairman was automatically elected to a five-year term as president; he was confirmed in office via a referendum. At the same time, voters were presented with two CCM candidates for the National Assembly or Bunge. This changed on July 1, 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly, this made development to go faster due to the fact that opposition parties keep forcing the ruling party to bring about development and if failed to do so the party may dominate a certain constituencies
                                “It is to be understood that Tanzania is a republic with an executive president. It has been a single party state with free elections from independence to 1995. Political pluralism was introduced in the country around 1992s following with the several elections on multiparty system. With multiparty system Tanzania have experienced several changes and development since its adoption, and most of these are free expression of somebody’s ideas, fillings and decision, equal chances in political participation”[8]
The Amendment of constitution:- The Constitution of Tanzania, formally Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania and also known as Permanent Constitution or Fourth Constitution of Tanzania, was ratified in 1977. Before the current establishment, Tanzania has had three constitutions: the Independence Constitution (1961), the Republican Constitution (1962), and the Interim Constitution of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar (1964)In 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged into the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed into "United Republic of Tanzania" that same year. The constitution of the newborn nation was based on Tanganyika's 1962 Republican Constitution, modified according to the agreements between TANU and Zanzibar's majority party, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP). These agreements had been ratified under the name "Articles of Union", and became part of the new constitution as "Acts of Union".
 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT SINCE INDEPENDENCE:-
        Improvement of social services:-Tanzania after independence started to improve her social services such as medical centers, school, water supply and even electricity this was done for the purpose of developing people standard of living, by doing so people could develop an independent self-sustaining economy which would solve the problem of African without foreign intervention.
            Provision of free education:-the government started UPE Universal Primary School Education, this gave room for those adults who did not have a chance to get education during colonial era and this was for the purpose of solving the problem of ignorance in the country so as these people can participate in national development, here Tanzania government made some achievements were by large number of people got education and start using their knowledge to create different economic ventures, hence solved the problem of unemployment in the country.
                              “though the masses education so as the can solve the problem of unemployment and engage into serious economic ventures/business, this calls for revising national syllabus which trains job seekers instead of job creators.”[9]
 National unity was formed through Ujamaa villages:-between 1967 and 1973 very little achieved concerning the said voluntary move of people to Ujamaa villages despite the fact that government promised provision of social services and stressed on the importance of people living together and work together and work together for the benefit of the country and their own benefit. Between 1967 and 1973 the government implemented the move by force into new surveyed areas, the Ujamaa village act was passed enabling village governments to have to sue in court.
      “Nyerere forced people to move onto collective farms, which greatly disrupted agriculture efficiency and output. Tanzania turned from a nation of sustenance, pre Ujamaa property inside food was given people who joined Ujamaa”[10]
Development of transport system, which do not support easier of the people in the previously time. But nowadays they were very good at the right time to tight place for further process in most of underdevelopment areas are facing the problems but Tanzania nowadays have been developed in infrastructures like road, railways and water way even in air way.
Employment opportunities in Tanzania, the government increasing the government program aspecially of the burling schools and then they employed the large number of teachers nowadays that is very quote different from independence up to now

Development of water supply, in Tanzania before the independence they were in little of the services of water because of their poor technology. So after independence the Tanzania increasing the water supply at the village in order to improve  water facilities so as to also  required energy to operate the factors whether in the firm of water, power, coal natural gas urban for nuclear power.
improvement  of education facilities, in Tanzania it promote education within the context of nationally owned and lead strategies for poverty reduction and strengthen research institutions in education and strengthen in order to increase the capacity to full support and the achievement of internationally agrred  development goals related to education including those contained. So Tanzania improve in the education facilities in the millennium. Declaration on ensuring that by 2015, children everywhere boys and girls like will be able to complete full of study.
                        “the course of primary schooling and that girls
                        And boys will have equal access to all level of
                        Education relevant national needs:
Development of market facilities, in Tanzania nowadays, it also there is the better of market facilities while the large number of the regional in Tanzania it owned their market. It is in Tanzania they were goods in the market facilities.
 Improvement of health services in Tanzania for example hospital like MUHIMBILI, NDANDA mission central and PERAMIO in Songea region it can lead to the civilized society must guarantee its people decent clothing, food, and shelter social development also include access to essential basic services and opportunities such as education, health easy communication, retentation and job, health,and welfare, health is more than just absence  of diagnosed physical disease. It is seen by the world health organization who a state of complete
THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTOF TANZANIA FROM INDEPENDENCE UP DATE
Development in agriculture sector, at the time the Tanzania as the nation it started use poor tools in agriculture but nowadays Tanzania have established some of nfrastructures  in the process of agriculture and used modern technology in agriculture for example the use of tractors for cultivation and fertilizers especially industrial fertilizer such as can, urea and S.A. also the government was provide loans to the farmer for example ( minjingu) mbolea ya luzuku as well as establishment of agriculture, also they were established ujamaa village and irrigation agriculture.
access of raw materials productions by the people which
can be fashioned by into useful product according to
 (IUPCN) the international union of the natural resources”
            Expansion of financial institutions, in Tanzania they were established the system of using ATM card in order to appropriate money  from the banking system, for example CRDB bank, NMB bank Barclays and NBC so as to simplify the program of banking system. They provide financial and technical support.
            Growth in tourism, the government of Tanzania so as in order to provide the good customer in the  tourism  sectors, and  also they were established the green tourism which is special for  their environment conservation in the Arusha national park.
            Industries development, in particular mining minerals and metals to the sustainable development of Tanzania from the independence up to the recent it supporting the development of effective and transparent regulatory and management frame work and value addition broad based participation, they were established manufacturing industries for example Urafiki industrial products and mining industries example gold in MWADUI.
            It led to the development in science and technology, through the availability of the college of science especially from private and government institution for example S.J  Joseph in Dar es salaam it produced the availability of engineering science it brings good challenges in Tanzania
to promote technological transfer and diffusion
to African and further develop technology and
knowledge available in Africa of excellence”

They were create an enabling program of environment conservation ,at the regional sub regionally nation and local level in order to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable development and support Tanzania  can effort for peace stability and support the security the resolution and prevention  of conflicts this is the program of environmental protection.
Mathew 1981, this lack is perceived in the term
 sad educational  social economical culturally o
r environment different between the developing
 regional and nation”

CONCLUSION
        Therefore colonialism cause many effect in Tanzania in different aspect, that way the end of colonialism in  Tanzania up to this time the Tanzania have failed to maintain its economy and became the dependency state, a lot of problems occur include corruption, political instabililty injustice, terrolism. Its possible Tanzania country to became developed country even if the representantive have represented with various meaning bof making order so as to stop corruption and miss use of public fund and the people participation of various means of making decision so as to participate in agriculture and other economic activities and the government should support them in order to develop the country .

                                   REFERENCES
Kamara Fr. J.F (2004), Major events in African History.  Morogoro Salvatorianum
Kato A. (2004), Development of African society up to the 19th century Mwanza Evening 
Adult school 
Mother earth. Travel.com /Tanzania/history.htm.
Mshin G. (2004). The origins and Development of African society, Dar es Salaam, Published
By Kot publishers Ltd 
Kamili.Z (2007). History paper one alive, Dar es Salaam, Published
By Afroplus industries Ltd 
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Okoth A. (2010).A History of African Volume 2.  Dar es Salaam. East Africa Educational 
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