Posted by Emmanuel Mgina on 07:55 with 5 comments
Revolution refers as the overthrowing of certain system of life and acquiring the modern one which is more advance.
industrial revolution refers the system of economic and social political changes that reflected the shift from the manufactured system based on manual labor to large scale machine industry or is refer to social and economic changes that mark the transitions from stable agriculture and commercial societies to a modern
Background of industrial revolution it seemed that in the period of 13th and 16thc it was the periods of revolutionary in economic changes as some historians argues, France is country which in western European countries and German also which formed the result of massive unification of small states like Prussian.
By 1914 the French industrialization was still in complete in agriculture activities which did not undergo extensive modernization and mechanize so the French peasant continued and had the greater influence over industrial sector it was until 1931 that the urbanization reached fifty percent so up to the 19th century Europe shaped into two revolutions French and industrial revolution came with idea of liberty, fraternity and equality.
Germany industrial revolution started at the mid of the 18th century under supervisions of Fredrick the great he emphasis the development of twining and metallurgy before 1850 Germany was backward in agriculture. By 1914 had become advanced in industrial and urbanized country in Europe. The development of German influenced by influx of British, Belgium, Swiss and French, as the result of this external influence region like Silesia, Saxons had experience substantial industrialization by 1830 and 1850 Germany enjoy the growth of coal, textile and iron industries.
At the end in 1870-1914 the growth of large scale industries in Europe continued rapidily example of the countries was already strongest in economic growth of their industries is like Britain, France, Belgium, German and others.
Industrialization in France, the following are the steps or the stages of industrialization in France,
The down of the industrialization France industrialization can be traced back at the period of 18th centuary in 1750-1789 it was not along term as it was short cut of the French revolution and napolionic wars 1792-1815 and in this period it seemed that the industrialization was occurred due to increase of population and this situation led to the prevision of market and availability of cheap labour for industry “The industrial revolution profoundly modified much of human experience”1
Drive towards industrialization 1815-1850 many historians explained this period like a periods of take off of French revolutionary industry. And here the industrialization was supported by political stability of the country , high quality of product of the material from industries and also improvements of transport system such as canals and this were done at the period of 1830 to 1840
The upper stage of industrialization 1850-1870 in 1850-1870.At this period France had acquired the characteristics of modern industrial economy this achievement established by expansion of coal, iron, construction of railways and engineering industries, Development of investment banks, Authority of Napoleonic regime 1851-1870 Maintained internal political instability which was conducive for industrial investment and innovation.
Drive towards industrial maturity 1870-1914 at this period the France attained substantial industrial and technological investment Germany and Britain included there
Industrialization in Germany at this periods of 1830-1950 German industries faced some of the difficulties like that the country was not yet intergrated in the world capitalist economy Agrarian revolution was not yet, Agriculture depression and also Germans faced a lot of challenges in developed countries like British which producing higher of quality and quantity goods.
Take of periods of 1850-1873 during this periods it seemed that Germany productions were increase for example during unifications of German production were increase ,banking system also were improved there were success in military activities, the transport and railways were also improved the population increased and also government become stable in political affairs.
Consolidation stage during the period of 1873 to 1914 Germany become mature industrial nation with high performance of economy throughout of Europe and this changes enable the countries to increase the income per capital were grew, there were high rate of manufacturing goods, and a half of the world trade share the German electrical products and it seem that ninety percent of the countries in the world buy those goods from the Germany.
The following are the causes of the industrialization in France and Germany this cause is as follows;
Scientific Revolution it leads to the improvement of factory system through the use of the machines rather than using labor this invention and innovations contribution of scientific revolution it also led to the improvement of agriculture through the use of fertilizer it also led the improvement of transport system, constructions of canals and improvement of railways.
So through scientific revolution the industries was opened through innovations of steam engine
Which provide the power source According to Steven and his follows “No single invented the steam engine, the steam engine was culmination of the work of many people”2
Agriculture Revolution due to the use of fertilizers the crops were grown well and the productions were grown into higher percent and this helps Germany and France to supply a lot of food stuffs into the other countries in the worlds and this situation lead the economy of these countries become higher.
Development of investment banks through provision of loans and credits to the industrial development of those countries and through provide different company within the state example in 1852 the France bank provide credit which provide funds into industry and the growth of stock companies. France and Germany encourage banks development since it seemed that the most of the economist banks can generate the state provision various sectors of economy example agriculture through loan provision and subsidize.
Population growth due to industrial revolution it seemed that the population of France and Germany became higher and this help the constant supply of labour in various sectors like in industries, mining, agriculture and also this situation led the internal markets improved well due to the availability of people who buys and sells and also the needs of food, shelter and clothes were increased example in France help of population were increase at the year of 1931 in the 19th century
“This had happened already in the 1850’s and by 1914 nearly four-fifths of her people lived in towns in Germany by the same time and date the figure was about three fifths in France on the other hand where agriculture maintained its old high place feather more people continue to live in the country than in towns”3.
Commercial revolution, this was the development of merchantalist which led to the gradual accumulation of capital through accumulation of raw materials like minerals, ivory and cotton from Africa during the triangular trade of 17th century it lead the expansion of European industries. Germany it self made the greatest industrial producers in Europe by 1914’s she was behind Britain in the extent and value of her trade ,this was costed as follow’s
“From about 1870 Britain gradually cased to be the workshop of the world but she remained the world main exporter, import and financier she was also still the worlds main carrier owning by 1914 about three-sevenths of the world’s total damage of shipping in Europe, Germany came next with about a quarter of Britain tonnage and France third with less than half Germany’s”4
Establishment of custom unions, this also one of the causes of industrialization of Germany and France because it allow the overflow of goods and service it remove trade barriers and through establishment of customs unions it seem that the markets were expended and in hence the production increase, example favourable commercial agreement with Britain and Belgium in 1841 and 1844 adopted common commercial policy.
“Franche suddenly flooded with cheaper and better English goods
in order to protect the French economy, the French government
responded by lying high tarrifs on many English imports”5
Occurrence of iron and steel the presence of iron and coal from the province of iron and coal from the province in Lorraine and during the period of triangular trade between African and Europe the industrial revolution become grown up due to the availability of those minerals which were used by the industries to make different things like infrastructures, tools vehical and soon.
Availability of the resources especially energy resources for industrial development in france and Germany iron and coal was needed by their industries because it was used in domestic and industrial purposes for the steam engine and water power uses around 19th century iron, mining and industry was rapid expand ,iron provided raw materials for heavy industries especially used in manufacturing different tools
“Well beyond 1914 coal remained by for the most important source of European industrial energy, it was used for direct heat as in metal smelting or for production of steam to drive locomotive ships and all kinds of machinery often it was employed in the form of coal gas”6
Occurrence of good infrastructures this is about the existence of the roads, railways, water transport, canals they are easy way for transportation and communication, raw materials were transported from different productive sectors to the industries most countries like Germany,Britain, and France their transport are easy due to the presence of enough infrastructures
Effects of industrials revolution in Germany and France the following bellow are the effects of industrial revolution those effects as follows
Employment opportunities is among of the effects which leads with the precence of industrial revolution a lot of the people get employment in different sectors like agriculture sector ,mining sector at industrial sectors and other organizations this situation makes the life of the people become well people lives in good standards of life.
It leads to the improvement of the social services due to the industrial activities in France and Germany the social services like electric ties, schools, hospitals water ,people become healthy due to the presence of medicines. Growth of towns due to the presence of electricity’s and soon
It led to the stable government due to the industrial revolution the France and Germany politically they become well because their government are economically well there was abandunt of foods people lives in high standards of life the countries are well in military due to the availability of weapons which were manufactured by their countries. And also due to the good leader ships of their leaders within their countries.
Occurance of towns it leads to the emergence of urbanizations and increase in population continued for instance between 1870 and 1914 every country in Europe develop a number of large cities in Germany the same date the figure was about three to fifth population and in france also so this situation lead the people to live in towns and hence it leads to the growth of urbanizations.
It lead to the growth per capital income for examples before the total industrialization in Germany and France the income decreases to the extent that most of people started to create the riots but after the emergence of industrial revolution per capital income within the France and Germany societies developed in all aspects of life that their in domestic and national in terms of Gross product (GNP)
Development of economy in Europe industrial revolution bring development in the economy of European countries like France and Germany due to the emergence of mechanized Agriculture, trade and commercial developments to gather with mining so through that situations we saw that how those countries developed well.
“Though there was a good deal of progress after the emancipation of the serfs the real sports begun in the 1890’s with the appointment of the railway administrator sergins with as finance and the beginning of direct state intervention in key industries this was greatly helped by France”7
It speed the movement of good and services it’s true that the industrial revolution in European countries especially German and France the movement of goods and services like finished goods from industries transferred from one countries to another due to the presence of infrastructures so the materials were transferred more easly through out of the world.
“ This night both enlarge the demand for European manufactured goods and at the same time make available to Europe such large quantities of food or raw materials from the nearly accessible regions as to alter greatly the previous pattern of trade”8
Improvement of living standards of the people due to the presence of industrial revolution many life of people changed due to the availability of new materials from the industries people employment in their industries the social services like school, hospital and other services which are importance to the life of human being was also among of the factors which cause the improvement of the standards of the people lives like living in good houses ,having safe water and soon.
It leads to the rice of profesionalist due to the industrial revolution in Europe during 19th centuary it seemed that due to the discover the steam engine the proffesionalist like james watt and others were occur due to these process so those proffessionalists they used they discover many things through maide with in their industries so this situations leads leads the emergence of proffesionalists in different parts of urope especially the France countries and Germany countries. According to the Germany journalist and thinker Fredrick list 1789-1846 dedicated and wrote as follows,
“Wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations
Becomes, the more dangerous it is to remain behind”8
To sum up the point above all I was written is among of the causes and effects of industrial revolution in Germany and France which cause and the effects like colonization of African countries due to the needed of raw materials, markets, areas for investments , cheep labour and potentialities of Africans especially for agriculture and mining extractions and this situations led the growth of urbanization, presence of good social services and the countries become well in military activities
Edward.Marcmall Borns,Robert E.lerner.(1980) WORLD CIVILIZATIONS United states of America,ww. Norton and company. Inc.
Kenneth clark. (1969) CIVILAZATION: A PERSONAL VIEW, United states of America: Newyork.
Mckay Hill Buckler. (1992). A HISTORY OF WOLD SOCIETIES; Volume 11 Since 1500,Printed in U.S.A: New York.
Palmer Cotton Kramer, (2007). A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD: SINCE 1815, Published by mcgraw-Hill, a business unit of the mcgraw-Hill companies. America: Newyork
T.walter wall band, (1990), HISTORY AND LIFE, Scottland, Foresman