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 Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values, and interests between people working together. Conflict is a pervasive feature common to all levels of social organization, not just organizations, and can have productive as well as damaging effects.

     Conflict takes many forms in organizations, for example in disagreements over how resources should be divided, how work should be done, or in interpersonal rivalries and misunderstandings. Conflicts can be grouped into substantive and affective conflicts.

Substantive and Affective Conflict

       Substantive conflicts deal with aspects of performance or tasks and often relate specifically to the project or goals of a team or organization. Task conflicts can arise when members of a team or organization disagree on issues that are relevant to meeting shared goals. Other substantive conflicts can take the form of process conflicts, disagreements over the strategies, policies, and procedures the group should use in order to complete its tasks. These conflicts can also occur around competition for resources, goal incompatibility, and time incompatibility.
Affective conflict deals with interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities. Affective conflicts, also known as personal conflicts, personality conflicts, emotional conflicts, or relationship conflicts, are conflicts that occur when group members express interpersonal dislike or negative feelings. These tend to revolve around personal disagreements or dislikes between individuals in a team and may relate to the actual project.

Intra and Interorganizational Conflict

       Organizational conflict, substantive or affective, can be divided also into intraorganizational and interorganizational. Interorganizational conflict occurs between two or more organizations, for example among competitors or collaborators with different views on how to approach the collaboration. Intraorganizational conflict is conflict within an organization, and can occur across departments, work teams, groups of individuals, and individuals.
       Individuals and groups may have various conflict and conflict resolution styles, such as avoiding conflicts, compromising, or cooperating Styles of conflict and conflict resolution can also depend on cultural norms varying by the type of organization or the country or region of operation. For example, in some settings, direct communication is encouraged as a means of explicitly addressing the issues at stake, while in other organizational or regional cultures, explicit communication can be perceived as rude or disrespectful and delay opportunities for resolution. There can also be different expectations about how conflict is allowed to surface, for example, with employees who are at different professional levels.
As an organization grows, or a single organization becomes more complex , it become increasingly differentiated along horizontal and vertical dimensions
Transaction along the vertical dimensions are within the framework of  hierarchical authority, between levels . Conflict arises among different levels and intensities of roles , missions, objectives and activities at various levels .
The vertical conflict rises due to inadequate-communication between echelons; that conflict system essentially arise from differences of  interests between position holder occupying  different situations in the organization hierarchy and that intra-organizational conflict arise from lack of shared perceptions and attitudes among members at different echelons
The transactions along the horizontal dimensions are very important and  this form of conflict occurs between department or other unit such as division , sections and branches.
The source of conflict between lateral units consists of resources toward sub-optimization . The sud-units in the goal –oriented system will have different sets of goals or different preferences –for the same goals . If the two sub-units having differentiated goals are functionally interdependent condition exist  for conflict.
This is a form of  structurally based conflict , primarily-horizontal, between staff and line manager at or near the same level . Line conflict is essentially a clash of domains caused by dividing expertise authority and roles. The conflict is between specialist and hierarchical role , through staff-line relationship. Staff specialities have flourished in organizations,bringing about conflict through differential role-expectations. New specialist is also threaten since older ones attempt to crowd them out.
Role conflict occurs when an individual assumes role for different situations that are inconsistent with one or more other roles . For example , the price of providing politicians with control over the professional and technical work is a conflict between the two contacting parts, giving rise to negative results
This is the conflict essential for the survival of the unions . Lack of conflict , will weaken it , and its independence is asserted by acts of criticism , contradictions, conflict competition . The strike in a labour management organization is a good example.
Conflicts can be managed in different way , some focusing on relationships and other on structural changes
Relationship changes
-Avoidance of the situation that causes the conflict is an example of an interpersonal approach
-Another way of coping with conflict is emphasizing the areas of agreement and common goals and de-emphasing disagreements
Structural change
Structural change solve conflict by modifying and intergrating objectives of groups with different view points. Moreover , the organization structrure. May have to be changed and  authority-responsibility relationships clarified. New way of co-ordinating activities may have to be found . Tasks and work locations can also be re-arranged .In one workroom , for example, machines were placed in a way that prevented conflicting parties from interactioning with one another
Causes of Conflict in an Organization
The causes of conflict fall into three distinct categories. Accordingly, these causes can be restructured and placed into one of these categories.
 These categories deal with communicational, behavioral and structural aspects. Managers must understand the type of conflict situations so that they spend less time while dealing with them.

Communicational Aspects of Conflict

       Poor communication, though not reflecting substantive differences, can have powerful effect in causing conflict. Misunderstood or partial information during the process of communication can make a difference between the success and the failure of a task and such failure for which the responsibility becomes difficult to trace can cause conflict between the sender of the communication and the receiver of the communication.
Thus the problems in the communication process – whether these problems relate to too much or too little communication, filtering of communication, semantic problems or noise-act to retard collaboration and stimulate misunderstanding. The filtering process occurs when information is passed through many levels or when it passes through many members.
     The amount of information is functional up to a point, beyond which it become a source of conflict. Semantic difficulties arise due to differences in backgrounds, differences in training, selective perception and inadequate information about others.
As an example, if a manager is going on an extended vacation fails to communicate properly with his subordinates as to who would be doing what, he will find these jobs only partially done with subordinates blaming each other for not completing the tasks. Accordingly, adequate, complete, and correctly understood communication is very important in orderly completion of tasks, thus reducing the chances of of conflict
        Today organizations are characterized by complex relationships and a high degree of task inter-dependence that can cause friction . Moreover , the goals of the parties are often incompatible ,especially when the parties complete for limited resource .People always have different values and different perceptions of issues. A production managers, for example may take the position that streamlining the product line and concentrating on a few product can make an organization more productive , while a marketing manager may desire a broad product line that will satisfy diverse consumer demand . An engineer may want to design the best product  regardless of cost or market demand considerations . This will be in conflict with the departments of purchasing , finance.
Conflict can arise from other sources as well . These may be conflict between people in time and staff positions . A superior”s autocratic leadership style may cause conflicts.
Differing educational backgrounds are potential sources of conflict
         In one view, organizational conflict produces negative outcomes. Conflicts cause stress, which reduces worker satisfaction. This diminished satisfaction can lead to increases in absenteeism and turnover. Conflict can also diminish trust in supervisors and fellow employees, which can slow or stop progress on projects. The pileup of internal negative consequences, such as lost trust and slowed progress, can generate a negative impact on customer satisfaction due to missed deadlines and reduced work quality.
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